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    兒童戲劇對性格涵養有獨特作用

    發布時間:2019-08-04 作者:易蓉 來源:中國教育報

    在兒童性格的涵養過程中,兒童戲劇作為一種獨特的教學手段,通過建構具體情境、采用角色扮演等方式,能讓兒童的知、情、意、行得到全面激發。

        戲劇情境潛移默化影響兒童性格

    《荀子·勸學》中提到南方有一種蒙鳩鳥,將羽毛筑成的巢安在蘆葦上。大風吹來,蘆葦折斷,巢傾卵破。這并不是因為巢穴不堅固,而是巢所在的地方造成的。蓬生麻中,不扶自直;白沙在涅,與之俱黑。如果長期浸泡在臭穢中,即便是香草,也會遭到眾人的嫌棄。這些都是環境的影響。

    環境如何對人產生影響?對于來自環境的刺激,人類不像昆蟲或其他動物那樣,觸發反射性和機械性的反應,而是多少加入了自己的經驗、經歷、理性、情感、情緒等主觀的成分,從主觀上對環境給予規定和把握,然后產生行為。通過不斷將外在的東西納入自己的心理結構,引起心理結構的不斷調整、改造,最終形成某種固定的情感傾向和行為模式,也即性格。這個過程是緩慢的、潛移默化的。

    兒童戲劇,恰好能發揮這樣的作用,它強調通過有目的地創設一種生活情境,讓兒童自己在特定的情境中活動、感覺和體驗,在環境潛移默化的給養中獲得良好的性格。

    舉例來講,兒童戲劇表演課程中有一個經典劇目《顏回吃粥》,里面建構了這樣一個場景:一片落葉掉進了顏回精心烹制的白粥里,顏回不舍得浪費,于是將臟掉的一點點粥吃掉了。這一幕被子貢誤會為顏回在偷吃。面對誤解,顏回該怎么辦?如果是你,你會怎么做?孩子們通過走入既定的情境,化身為劇中的人物,體驗角色情感,學習角色待人接物的方式,感受顏回面對誤解不生氣的氣度,真正理解了什么叫作“人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎”。當孩子們今后遇到類似的境況,因為有了從戲劇中獲得的經驗,因而可以將其遷移到真實的事件處理當中。

    想象一下,如果沒有戲劇,要讓學前階段的兒童理解和做到“人不知而不慍”,恐怕要費上九牛二虎之力。兒童戲劇像一個灌木叢,能將兒童的知、情、意、行自然地統合起來,讓兒童對故事或事件的體驗不僅僅限于“知道”,還能“做到”。

        戲劇表演有利于激發兒童想象力

    我們來看一下兒童戲劇活動中真實的一幕:

    老師首先設定了一個戲劇情境:小朋友們肚子痛。阿奔揉著肚子說:“肚子好痛啊,快去大便。”大家笑作一團。樂樂說:“我去看醫生。醫生會給我開很苦的藥。”老師問大家:“有誰愿意吃藥?”小朋友們都跑開了。沒人愿意吃苦苦的藥。

    老師拿出一個貼著小雞貼紙的透明杯子,杯子里面盛滿“藥”。她說:“你們看,這種藥水像不像大海的波浪?”小朋友們開始靠近老師,仔細地觀察著杯子。老師趁勢大喊:“糟糕,一只小雞掉進大海里了。聽聽看,它在喊什么?”樂樂將耳朵貼在杯子上,仔細聽了一會兒,說它在喊“救命”,東東也將耳朵貼在杯子上,說小雞在喊“救命,救命”。此時,教室里響起一陣陣“救命”聲。老師問小朋友們:“誰能幫忙把水喝完,把小雞救起來?”子楚著急地說:“讓我來救它。”說完,拿起杯子,勇敢地將“藥”灌進自己的喉嚨。喝完后,她撇了撇嘴,皺了皺眉。小朋友們都跑過來,爭先恐后地要喝“藥”。

    從“沒人愿意”到“爭先恐后”地喝藥,中間發生了什么?藥是很苦的,在其中加一個幻想中的小雞,苦味仿佛就消失了。這就是兒童戲劇教育的神奇之處。

    發展心理學認為,一歲半至6歲是兒童幻想的高峰期。這個階段的兒童認為一切事物都有靈性和生命。小雞會喊“救命”,小花會笑著和他們打招呼……著名心理學家榮格說:“人類的所有成就都源于創造性幻想。”

        角色扮演利于提高兒童語言表達與交流能力

    很多大人會有這樣的困擾:有些孩子在熟人面前能做到侃侃而談、信心滿滿,但一到了陌生場合或有陌生人在場就表現得非常害羞、孤僻。陽陽媽曾經也被這個問題困擾了很久。5歲的陽陽從小就不愿意上幼兒園。雖然他平時在自家親人面前一直表現得活潑開朗,但到了大環境中卻像“蔫兒”了一般,不愿意和其他孩子交流,有時甚至會故意表現出一些粗暴無禮或富有攻擊性的行為,來掩飾內心的不安全感。

    在老師的建議下,陽陽開始參與兒童戲劇表演。陽陽得到的第一個角色是一棵“大樹”。雖然“大樹”只是一個配角,沒有幾句臺詞,但卻是個不可或缺的角色。在整個排練過程中,陽陽開始慢慢地和別的孩子熟絡起來,也變得更加自信、健談,甚至學會分享自己的小零食、小玩具了。

    大量研究已經證明,兒童戲劇表演作為一項集體活動,能讓孩子在參與過程中接觸更多的同齡人,更好地融入集體氛圍。此外,戲劇以輕松、愉悅的藝術形式,使孩子在扮演角色的過程中很快學會待人接物的技巧,這往往比大人直接灌輸要有效、有趣得多。

    (作者單位:深圳兒童性格養正研究中心)

    《中國教育報》2019年08月04日第2版 

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