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    教師回應幼兒要“走心”

    發布時間:2019-08-04 作者:梅舒紅 張永英 來源:中國教育報

    教室里,小寶拿著幾片葉子看向教師:“老師,秋天里的葉子為什么不一樣啊?”“哦,是嗎?不一樣啊,葉子都是不一樣的。”老師看了一眼,繼續忙活起來。小寶默默地放下了葉子。

    意大利瑞吉歐教育理念告訴我們:“接過孩子拋過來的球,并拋還給孩子。”幼兒園教師每天都在對幼兒進行回應,這些回應有時是自然而然地發生的,有時是突然發生的,但經常都是教師對幼兒無意識、無目的的反應。幼兒常常在這種回應中喪失活動興趣和對事物的好奇心,這種回應可以被稱為“反應”或是“消極回應”。而有效回應是指:教師有意識發起的行為,在回應過程中有積極的情感,回應行為是基于、保持并以促進幼兒發展為目標的。那么,在真實教育情境下,教師究竟該如何進行有效回應呢?

        步驟一:共情觀察,情感回應

    教育行為追溯其本源,是基于對幼兒的觀察,懂得如何觀察幼兒,能夠理解幼兒,才有可能展開后續的回應行為。有效回應強調教師需要一種共情的觀察。蒙臺梭利同樣提出“擺脫先入為主的想法看待兒童”。這就要求教師擱置單方面的判斷,從成人視角中擺脫出來,與幼兒產生“共情”,觀察并發現幼兒在這個情境中遭遇了什么。回應行為的前提是共情的觀察,而回應的第一步往往是情感上的回應。美國教育思想家內爾·諾丁斯的關心理論中指出,關心者去關心他人,第一步是在感情上去接受對方,盡量體會他人的感受。建立這種關系的第一步就是通過肢體、表情、言語在情感上接納對方。情感回應可以幫助教師打開幼兒的心扉,從而為后續產生促進幼兒經驗發展的回應行為,提供具有信任感和安全感的關系基礎。

    小跳從書架上拿下一本書,她翻了幾頁,把書放下就跑出了圖書區。小周老師看到后,拉住小跳的手,微笑著說:“小跳,我看到你沒有把書及時放回書架,你是打算做什么嗎?”小跳回答:“哦,那本書破了,我要去美工區拿膠帶把它修好。”小周老師笑著說:“這樣啊,你想修補書的想法很好,去美工區拿工具吧!”小跳開心地走向美工區。

    遇到這種情境,有些教師往往采取直接把書合上放回書架,或對幼兒說“看你,書又忘記放好了”等回應方式。小周老師沒有直接用自己成人的視角對幼兒行為意義進行判斷——“她沒有及時放回圖書”,而是先了解幼兒的想法,并用微笑、拉住幼兒的小手、及時認可幼兒的行為等方式,對幼兒給予了情感上的鼓勵和支持,促進了幼兒更加主動去解決問題。

        步驟二:對照《指南》,識別行為

    有效回應不僅是情感上的回應,面對幼兒的問題情境或活動,教師還需要做到積極識別幼兒的行為。

    第一步是識別幼兒的興趣。通過觀察、發現幼兒正在做的有趣又有意義的事,教師會知道此刻為了促進學習,幼兒需要教師提供什么。這名幼兒是否在談話?如果是,或許教師可以為其介紹一個新的詞語。那名幼兒正在做因果關系的思考嗎?如果是,教師可以問:“你為何覺得那會發生?”

    第二步是識別幼兒的發展序列。教師需要透過興趣看到幼兒的發展序列,了解幼兒該方面的現有水平和可以達到的下一階段水平,從而提供與幼兒自身現有能力匹配的活動。《3—6歲兒童學習與發展指南》可以幫助教師初步了解不同年齡階段的幼兒在不同領域的發展序列,結合具體班級幼兒的特殊性,在最近發展區內提供指導。

    一個孩子把水杯碰翻了,水灑到地板上,有的老師會走過去說:“你怎么這么不小心啊,搞得一地都是。”也有的老師看見了,會立刻拿上“應急角”的工具小桶走過去,小桶里有毛巾、刷子、海綿吸等。

    接著,老師和藹地對幼兒說:“啊,沒關系,你看看這里哪一樣工具能幫助你。”于是幼兒嘗試了用毛巾、刷子,最后選擇用海綿吸把水擦干了。幼兒高興地告訴老師和小朋友,海綿吸最好用。老師表揚幼兒很能干,自己灑的水能自己擦干凈,也告訴幼兒以后要當心。

    我們很容易看出,后一位老師的回應可稱得上是有效回應。這位老師沒有認為“他太調皮了,又干了一件壞事”,而是站在幼兒的視角想到,“這個孩子打翻了水,他現在應該有些不安和無措”,并用溫和的表情和言語接納了幼兒的行為,告訴幼兒:犯了錯不可怕,能夠解決問題才是關鍵。“你看看這里哪一樣工具能幫助你。”看似不經意的一個提示,卻反映出教師經過了快速的識別過程。首先,教師需要識別到這里存在一個學習契機,可以發展幼兒解決問題的學習品質;然后,教師需要對照《指南》考慮該幼兒在該目標上的已有經驗和可以獲得的新經驗,在幼兒的最近發展區提供支持:讓幼兒可以不斷嘗試一個或多個想法,直到他成功解決一個簡單的問題。

        步驟三:因地制宜,采取策略

    有效回應基于教師共情的觀察與積極的識別,但最后還是要落實到一些具體的回應策略上。

    其一,有效的師幼互動。教師最常用的回應策略往往是語言上的回應。在師幼互動中,教師需要抓住幼兒的“閃光點”,增強幼兒的自信心,立足于幼兒的優勢,促進幼兒的發展。在回應幼兒時,教師應該有意識地進行高級言語示范,具體表現在:對話情境使用新詞語,豐富自己的提問方式,多采用開放式提問。

    其二,有意識的環境和材料。環境內容以幼兒的活動為主,可以是個別或小組幼兒的作品呈現,也可以是幼兒計劃、調整、實施的探究過程的呈現。過程性的環境能夠讓幼兒感受到教師的關注和認可,也能夠讓班級幼兒關注到其他幼兒正在進行的活動,得到一定的啟發。此外,材料的提供也需要注意是否能夠支持幼兒當前的活動,豐富不等于適宜,材料的種類和數量需要考慮幼兒目前的活動和興趣點。

    其三,從家長入手。家園溝通可以幫助教師全面了解幼兒,當幼兒在班級突然表現出某些異常行為或對某件事物的持續興趣時,教師需要及時和家長溝通,采取給家長發幼兒的作品照片、近況表現,或讓家長注意觀察幼兒的某些行為并適當記錄等方式,取得家長的配合,共同支持幼兒的發展。在這個過程中,家長也可以感受到教師對幼兒的關注和支持,從而進一步促進家園彼此間的信任和理解。

    (作者單位:南京師范大學教育科學學院)

    《中國教育報》2019年08月04日第2版 

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