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    學習類APP,當對教育懷有敬畏之心

    發布時間:2019-08-03 作者:曹梅 來源:中國教育報

    2018年12月教育部印發《關于嚴禁有害APP進入中小學校園的通知》,這份被稱為“最嚴學習類APP”監管令出臺后,學習類APP使用和監管的問題引起社會的廣泛關注,整個教育科技產品的推廣應用都面臨很大的挑戰,其產品研發和推廣應用的思路均面臨重新定位與調整。

    媒體集中曝光了一些有害學習類APP的種種亂象:捆綁廣告、誘導付費、外鏈游戲娛樂服務、違規收集學生隱私信息、提供低俗段子營造所謂的“輕松一刻”……匪夷所思,嚴重危害青少年的身心健康,沖擊基本的社會道義與良心。這也反映出很多面向基礎教育的教育產品的開發者并不懂教育,不懂教育教學策略,不分析學習者的心理特征和認知規律;很多開發行為是小作坊模式,抓住一點點概念就開始設計課程、開發產品、上市推廣,追求用戶黏性和點擊量,將其所面對的學習者用戶等同于一般的互聯網用戶,簡單移植互聯網行業中的用戶策略,一味迎合學生,美其名曰從學生心理特點出發,無視可能的負面影響,無視真正剛性的學習需求,甚至本末倒置誤導學生,這樣的產品最終得不到教育用戶的認可,無法立足。學習類APP魚龍混雜的亂象背后,是“一些企業對教育沒有敬畏之心”,一味地追求經濟效益,而忽略教育特性,忽略社會責任。

        教育科技產品的第一特性:教育性

    任何教育產品,教育都是第一屬性,這是由產品的使用價值決定的,即服務于教育、服務于培養健全的人、“讓人成為人”這一共同的教育目標。教育科技產品的宗旨在于將現有科技通過設計與開發轉化為產品,以滿足教育需求并達成教育目標。教育科技產品有兩大特性:教育性和技術性。其中,技術性往往是最先奪人眼球的部分,特別是人工智能、語音識別技術等,讓技術切實能夠為學習賦能;同時科技紅利讓學習類APP行業也充滿期待,近年來在線教育產業異軍突起,僅2018年就有多個主打中小學生作業輔導的APP獲得超過一億美元融資。但是,教育最初的目的經常會在巨大的技術光環之下被忽略甚至被沖擊,反而丟掉了一些教育常識,如教室安裝高清攝像頭的事件引發了“是否違反人性”的大討論,同樣,學習類APP在設計和開發過程中也常常會走入類似的誤區。

    聚焦教育性,首先要思考的是教育的本質是什么?習近平總書記明確指出,培養什么人,是教育的首要問題。黨的十八大提出,“堅持把立德樹人作為教育的根本任務”。人工智能的視角認為“教育的本質,是認知的提升”。中國核心素養研究項目組主張,教育的目的在于發展學生的核心素養。由此,發展出不同的教育理解,實踐上呈現德育導向、知識導向、認知過程導向、能力素養導向等不同路徑。我們認為,如何“樹”人是教育科技行業需要重新思考的問題。

    當前教育科技行業往往思考更多的是如何利用技術,作用于具體的教學內容呈現、具體的教學策略環節改進學習過程,為教學增效,側重于如何“樹”人,并且持很強的知識導向、認知導向。當然,術業有專攻,很多學習類APP只專注在一個點上來做教育服務,無可厚非,但是,全面育人、能力素養等應該作為一個更大的教育背景和教育目標一直都在,不可忽略。因此,敬畏教育,就是始終堅守“教育性”第一特性,并從內容、用戶、教學創新三個方面來實現。

        內容為王敬畏知識 尊重用戶而非迎合

    提供優質的教學內容和服務,是學習類APP的根基,是彰顯其教育性的首要維度。漂亮的界面、花哨好玩的功能均是錦上添花,內容才是內在價值和競爭力之所在。當前學習類APP深諳“內容為王”之道,一般都能夠精準定位用戶需求、制作有吸引力的高質量的學習內容。通過生產原創的新穎的學習內容,成立專門的教師團隊,進行原創內容的開發和推薦,或制作精品視頻或Flash動漫課件,或將線下的優質教輔資料二次開發為在線習題庫,或采集各種公共英文電影資源加工轉化為一手的英語學習資源等;還要依托一線優秀學科教師、教研員、教學專家等形成強大教研團隊,參與學習內容建設,并對學習內容的質量嚴格把關。

    此外,借助人工智能與大數據分析等技術來分析學習內容的使用記錄,從而逐步精準判斷學習內容的難度、區分度、質量等特征,使學習內容在應用中大浪淘沙,優質的內容最終沉淀下來,成為精品資源。

    學習類APP教育性彰顯的第二個維度是真正地尊重用戶,特別是尊重K12教育的學生。尊重不是迎合,不是學生喜歡什么就提供什么,不是只有表揚和鼓勵。首先,要尊重學生的心理特點和認知規律,很多學習類APP提供的學習內容與生活相關聯、多種媒體呈現、形象生動,教師講課幽默,這些能有效地吸引學習者的興趣;整合游戲元素于學習過程之中,激發學生的挑戰欲和成就感,同伴之間形成有效的競爭,通過不斷的積分激勵學生一路向前。這樣的設計當前比較普遍。

    其次,真正的尊重是尊重學生可能的弱點,有針對性地引導。學習類APP使用過程中,學生的自我學習管理能力一直備受挑戰,學生容易分心做與學習無關的事情,學習任務完成低效,使用電子產品時間長、影響視力等。因此,一些學習類APP開發出“護眼模式”,對使用時間進行了適當監管,即體現出一種真正的尊重。同理,開發一些學習計劃功能,引導學生更好地做自我學習管理;除了關注知識點診斷之外,建議對學生的作業時間、效率等進行跟蹤反饋與激勵。

    再其次,尊重學習者還意味著激勵更多指向學習者的內在動機而不僅僅是外在動機。不要把學生訓練成練習的機器,而要將學習活動發展為一種社交活動:相互批改作業,曬一曬各自的學習作品,一起在錯題中“找找碴兒”。積分也許并非想象的那么有效,目標為中心的知識點診斷有時候很冰冷,而關注學習者點滴的成長,讓學習者看到自己的進步,可能更能激活學生內心的求知欲望。

        整合先進的教學理論 經由技術和內容載體實現創新

    某種程度上,教育是一門大眾的學問,誰都似乎有一些經驗和感受,誰都能說上幾句,誰都有一些學習方法。但是,教育同樣是一門專業,有不斷變化的教育理念、不斷浮現的認知規律、不斷創新的教學方法。無視先進的教學理念,教育科技產品很難創新。艾賓浩斯遺忘曲線已廣泛應用于單詞記憶類APP,學生注意力的相關研究成果應用在教學微視頻制作中,英語學習軟件中不時有情境認知理論的痕跡。有很多創新的教育科技產品起源于大學教學研究機構:WISE科學探究學習項目由美國教育科學院、加州大學伯克利分校的教授團隊研發,以知識整合學習理論為指導,借助建模技術、可視化技術、動態仿真技術及智能測評技術等,培養學生的科學探究思維與能力。Scratch則是麻省理工學院開發的圖形化編程工具,創新使用積木模塊式編程訓練學生的計算思維。

    反觀我們當前的學習類APP設計的內在學習理念,大多數難以擺脫知識為主的講授模式、刺激—反應—及時反饋(強化)的行為主義操作練習模式、積分獎勵以及游戲競爭的外部動機激勵模式,即使是人工智能的應用,也僅僅是將機械練習進化為自適應練習,語音識別技術的應用擴展了對語音的自動評判與及時反饋,從內在的教育理念和教學方法來看,當前學習類APP中的創新并不多見。因此,學習并整合先進的教育教學理論,經由技術和內容載體來實現創新的學習過程,是學習類APP敬畏教育的更高層次,關乎產品的創新,更關乎產品的生命力。

    (作者系南京師范大學教育科學學院副教授)

    《中國教育報》2019年08月03日第3版 

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