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    開設學前專業需做好科學準備

    發布時間:2019-07-28 作者:鄧宏寶 來源:中國教育報

    學前教育是基礎教育的重要組成部分,是終身教育的奠基階段。近年來,黨和政府、社會各界對學前教育事業日趨重視,以農村為重點學前教育普及水平的提升,公辦園以及普惠性民辦幼兒園的發展,皆對學前教育人才提出了強烈需求。

    面對此需求,不少職業院校迅速回應,積極創設條件,增設學前教育專業。僅2018年高等職業教育即新設學前教育專業點72個,高職院校學前教育專業布點總數達500多家,高職院校成為學前教育人才培養的一支重要生力軍。

    與長期致力于教師教育的師范院校不同,部分倉促上馬學前教育專業的非師范職業院校,由于缺乏足夠的優良師資、必備的課程資源、基本的實訓條件,特別是缺乏專業文化的積淀,一些院校存在辦學目標定位不準、辦學思路不清、師資負擔過重、課程設置不當、學生實習實訓不足等問題,造成了人才培養質量的良莠不齊。這不得不引起我們高度的重視,而解決這一問題,尤其需要教育部門和職業院校在準備建設學前教育專業階段時就做好相關準備。

    科學論證專業設置條件

    專業建設是職業院校內涵建設的基礎和核心,也是其發展的永恒主題。

    在專業設置中,職業院校一定要在廣泛調研、理性分析基礎上慎重決策,堅持有所為、有所不為的原則,重點打造自身的品牌專業、特色專業,切忌“求新求熱”、一哄而上。盡管學前教育人才就總體而言市場需求旺盛,但仍然存在區域、校際之間的不平衡,相關院校要充分學習相關政策文件,對照《教師教育課程標準(試行)》《學前教育專業認證標準》等,結合學校的辦學定位、發展規劃和培養條件,充分分析論證學前教育專業設置的必要性、可行性。

    在需求不準、條件不具備的前提下,盲目設置學前教育專業,只能導致辦學資源的浪費、學校美譽的損失,甚至數代兒童教育的受損。地市級教育、工信、人社等部門亦要加強協作,發揮各自優勢,履行各自職責,建立市級專業建設調查研究機制、預警機制和動態調整機制,為市域職業院校學前教育專業在內的專業開發、調整和發展提供規劃和決策依據。

    深化改革人才培養過程

    應增加對考生的面試環節,重點關注考生對教育工作、對兒童的認知與態度,其次適當要求考生具備一定的音樂、舞蹈、美術等方面素養,把好學生心理素質與學業水平的入學標準。要細化、具體化人才保教質量標準,依據OBE理念(即基于學習產出的教育模式)開發保教并重的課程體系及富有校本特色的課程資源。要健全UGS三位一體育人機制(即高校、地方政府與學校幼兒園協同培養教師的新機制),依據保教結合需要,吸收部分婦幼保健機構作為實訓基地,構建從見教、試教、實教、磨教到研教的“全過程實踐”人才培養模式。要開展研究性教學、案例教學、項目教學實踐,建設遠程觀摩系統、虛擬仿真實訓室等,探索基于智慧教育環境的個別化教學,為學生的多元化發展奠定基礎。

    加強教師隊伍建設

    組織院校教師學習我國關于教育發展的重要論述,貫徹落實《關于全面深化新時代教師隊伍建設改革的意見》《新時代幼兒園教師職業行為十項準則》等文件精神,引導專業教師把教書育人和自我修養結合起來,自覺成為以德立身、以德立學、以德施教、以德育德的楷模。

    對新入職的青年教師開展系統的崗前培訓,激勵其參與“集體討論”,加入“教育論壇”,撰寫“反思日記”,以提升教育教學能力、端正教育教學態度、強化專業情感;建立教師實踐研修制度,探索掛職鍛煉、協同教研、雙向互聘、頂崗支教等實踐研修方式;規范兼職教師、實踐導師的選聘、考核制度,建立市級、校級兼職教師、實踐導師庫,有效發揮雙導師、雙基地協同育人功能。

    注重學生養成教育

    將學生專業入門教育系統化,加深學生對學前教育社會價值與地位的認識,激發其專業學習的使命感、責任感;引導學生樹立正確的兒童觀與教師職業觀,將未來的教師崗位視作結交最純真的朋友、延續自己的生命、實現自我人生價值的舞臺,提升學生從業的榮譽感、自豪感;著力學生專業能力、方法能力、社會能力訓練,增強學生可持續發展后勁;強化學生教師角色意識,關注教師氣質、言行舉止、動作規范的養成;搭建交流平臺,讓學生有機會到第一線對幼兒進行觀察和教育實踐,提升學生熱愛幼兒的能力,堅定其熱愛幼兒的信念,培育學生“愛滿天下”的教育情懷。

    與此同時,應考慮按照“平等互利、資源共享、合作共贏、共謀發展”原則,組建區域學前教育專業建設基地,構建利益共同體,開展師資互聘、資源共享、基地共建等合作,憑借區域內有較長辦學歷史、有豐富辦學經驗、有顯著辦學成效的學前教育專業的帶動與示范,通過“大手拉小手”,助力職業院校學前教育專業水平的提升。

    (作者系南通大學教育科學學院教授)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月28日第2版 

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