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    日本吸引留學生新高背后有隱憂

    發布時間:2019-07-26 作者:李冬梅 來源:中國教育報

    為吸引留學生,日本近年來推出了“超級國際化大學”項目。參與該項目的日本高校在日本乃至全球享有較高聲譽。通過該項目赴日留學的外國學生,無需掌握日語,可以直接進入英語授課項目,并參加免費的日語語言課程。此外,日本提供了豐厚的獎學金,放寬留學生在日工作限制,以吸引更多赴日留學生。

    從日本文部科學省于2009年開始實施“留學生30萬人計劃”(Global 30 Project),重點推進以英文形式面向留學生授課相關措施,再到2014年推出“超級國際化大學”(Super Global University)項目,日本在吸引留學生方面下了大力氣,而近些年的赴日留學生人數也在不斷創下新高,日本吸引留學生政策成效逐步凸顯。然而在國際競爭以及日本國內面臨“東京一極集中”“地方消亡”等問題的背景下,今后日本在吸引留學生、推進教育國際化發展方面也可謂困難重重。

    赴日留學生人數創新高

    日本獨立行政法人·日本學生支援機構于2017年12月公布的最新《外國留學生調查報告》顯示,截至2017年5月1日,赴日留學人數達到267042人,比上一年增加27755人,同比增長11.6%,創下歷史新高。

    從赴日留學生的來源地區和國別來看,2017年度93%的留學生來自亞洲,達到249242人。其中,中國和越南的留學生共占總體的63.3%,中國大陸留學生合計107260人,位居第一,占40.2%,之后依次為越南(61671人)、尼泊爾(21500人)、韓國(15740人)。從赴日留學生就讀的專業來看,人文學科以124305的人數位居第一,占總體的46.5%,之后依次為社會科學(67664人)、工學(30804人)、藝術(8432人)。

    從外國留學生的赴日地區來看,東京坐擁103456名留學生,位居第一,占赴日留學生總人數的38.74%。并且從近幾年的調查數據來看,在東京留學的學生數量呈爆炸式增長,2013年共有60515名留學生,2014年共有69903名留學生,2015年和2016年則分別增至81543和92534名留學生。另外,根據2017年日本學生支援機構的調查,東京都內接收留學生最多的前幾名大學分別為早稻田大學(5072人)、東京福祉大學(3733人)、東京大學(3618人)、慶應義塾大學(1677人)、明治大學(1456人)、東京工業大學(1432人)、上智大學(1307人)。且近三年這些大學接收留學生的人數都有不同程度的增加,其中東京福祉大學增加的幅度最大,2015年僅有1403名留學生,2016年達到3000人,2017年則有3722人。

    “超級國際化大學”政策成效凸顯

    日本的留學生人數之所以呈爆炸式增長,與日本實施的一系列留學生政策密切相關。2014年,日本文部科學省為了鼓勵大學進一步加速國際化進程,將原來實行的“留學生30萬人計劃”項目升級為“超級國際化大學”項目,推進國內頂尖大學向國際化進軍,同時鼓勵日本國內大學進行改革,將入選的37所大學細分為匹敵國際頂尖學府的國際化大學和牽引地方發展的國際化大學,均提供重點財政支持。“超級國際化大學”項目吸引了更多的外國留學生赴日留學。參與該項目的高校基本都是在日本乃至全世界聲譽頗高的大學,通過該項目赴日留學的外國學生無須掌握日語,可以就讀英語授課項目,同時學習免費的日語語言課程。

    在“超級國際化大學”項目的倡導下,東京各大高校也紛紛出臺了各種方案吸引留學生。例如,慶應義塾大學于2014年開始實行“兄弟高校計劃”,接收更多的交換留學生;立教大學于2017年開始實行“全球人文學科計劃”,留學生可通過就讀英語授課項目獲得學位;筑波大學則是為了方便美國、英國等自9月份開始新學年的留學生,從2016年開始在個別項目上接收9月入學的留學生;法政大學為了吸引更多的留學生,與中國的四川外國語大學、重慶師范大學、西南民族大學、福州大學、福建師范大學五大高校簽訂協議,在中國實施研究生入學考試,合格者可作為特別研究生進入法政大學就讀,并于次年4月直接成為正式研究生。

    獎學金與工作條件放寬

    為赴日留學生提供豐厚的獎學金也是吸引外國學生的途徑之一。根據日本學生支援機構發布的《2018—2019年日本留學獎學金手冊》,赴日留學的外國學生不僅有日本文部科學省提供的豐厚獎學金,也能獲得日本學生支援機構提供的獎學金。此外,來自日本地方政府、民間團體的獎學金也為赴日留學生減輕了不少經濟負擔。例如,東京都新宿區地方政府為新宿區內符合要求的高校留學生每年提供24萬日元的外國留學生學習獎勵金,渥美國際交流財團、鹿島育英會、國際協和獎學會、東燃國際獎學財團等民間團體也為赴東京留學的外國學生提供了豐厚的獎學金。

    由于日本少子化的情況不斷惡化,勞動力不足的情況也仍在持續,日本政府積極推進放寬留學生在日工作限制相關措施,以吸引更多外國人赴日留學。外國留學生從日本大學畢業后,滿足年收入300萬日元以上、在使用日語交流的工作單位就職的條件,則將不受行業和領域限制被授予外國人在留資格。例如,東京都為了吸引更多優秀的外國留學生畢業后留日工作,在《東京都多文化共生推進方針》中明確指出,為了擴大留學生在東京就業的機會,東京都不僅需要教給留學生就業的一些技巧,也需要向留學生介紹雇用外國人較多的企業。并且,東京都構建了專門為外國人提供就業信息的網站——東京外國人雇傭服務中心,該網站成為留學生和東京企業溝通的橋梁。留學生可以通過該網站獲取企業招聘的相關信息,也能了解日本企業文化,同時學習一些商務技能;企業則可以獲得更多國際化的人才,促進企業的國際化發展。

    吸引留學生前景不容樂觀

    從當前來看,赴日留學生數量即將突破30萬人,而致力于打造世界第一城市的東京仍在大力吸引更多的外國留學生,預計在接下來的幾年中東京都內的留學生數量還將繼續增長。另一方面,因人口資源等過度集聚東京圈的“東京一極集中”,導致日本許多地方發展乏力出現“地方消亡”現象,因此國家層面開始實施地方振興計劃,并禁止東京核心地帶的大學擴招學生。雖然東京都知事小池百合子公開反對這一國家政策,認為這會一定程度上阻礙東京的國際化進程,但旨在實現地方振興進而推動日本整體發展的國家頂層規劃可謂不可撼動。與此同時,城市人口密集也帶來了交通堵塞、物價高漲、環境惡化等“大都市病”,東京能否保持對外國留學生的高吸引力,也成為一個問題。此外,日本周邊部分國家同樣面臨少子化和勞動力不足的問題,可能會開始吸引本國學生回國發展,同時與日本爭奪外國留學生。這對日本來說也是一個重大挑戰。

    (作者單位:北京教育科學研究院教育發展研究中心)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月26日第3版 

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