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    托育服務如何走向規范多元

    ——嬰幼兒早期發展、托育服務與家庭育兒支持論壇觀察

    發布時間:2019-07-21 作者:本報記者 紀秀君 來源:中國教育報

    “0—3歲嬰幼兒照護服務的屬性是什么?這個問題是我們政策制定的源頭性問題,也是基本的理論問題。”日前,全國人大常委會委員、北京師范大學教授龐麗娟在“嬰幼兒早期發展、托育服務與家庭育兒支持”論壇上,啟發與會者共同思考這一首先要明確的問題。

    做好嬰幼兒照護服務工作,事關億萬家庭的和諧幸福。黨的十九大報告強調,要在“幼有所育”上不斷取得新進展。前不久,國務院辦公廳印發的《關于促進3歲以下嬰幼兒照護服務發展的指導意見》提出,到2025年,嬰幼兒照護服務的政策法規體系和標準規范體系基本健全,多元化、多樣化、覆蓋城鄉的嬰幼兒照護服務體系基本形成。

    本次論壇由北京師范大學教育學部學前教育研究所(系)主辦,國家社科基金重大項目“全面二孩政策下城市地區0—3歲嬰幼兒托育服務體系研究”資助。來自國家衛生健康委、國家發展改革委、國務院發展研究中心、全國婦聯等職能部門領導以及相關領域的專家學者,圍繞“嬰幼兒早期發展與家庭支持”“托育服務的規范、多元發展”展開了深入交流和探討。

    家庭需求迫切而供給難如人意

    “‘全面二孩’政策實施后,我國人口出生率的增長不是很理想,為什么有些家庭選擇不生二孩?不生的理由當中以往主要是經濟因素的制約,但目前的調查顯示,沒人照護已經成為首要原因。”北京師范大學學前教育研究所(系)所長洪秀敏教授,分享了她主持的國家社科基金重大項目和國家衛健委嬰幼兒照護供需調研項目的部分調研成果,基于全國13個城市的大規模問卷調查和五省市的實地調研,分析了當前我國嬰幼兒托育服務發展的供需現狀、主要矛盾。

    洪秀敏進一步介紹說,家庭對托育服務的需求迫切且呈現出多元化的趨勢。在調研對象當中,有近一半的家庭表示,可以選擇的機構資源比較少、距離遠,托育服務的收費比較高。而且,目前托育機構的硬件條件、衛生安全、師資水平、服務內容、監管體系等,都難以滿足家長多元需求,亟待規范。

    國務院發展研究中心社會發展研究部佘宇研究員認為,嬰幼兒早期發展服務面臨著多重問題與挑戰,從微觀層面看,家庭養育最優但缺乏制度保障,家政服務是有益補充但不規范,托育需求旺盛但有效供給不足,由于缺乏資源、科學知識和方法,不少兒童難以在家庭中得到科學、充分的發展指導。從宏觀層面看,幼有所育政策體系欠缺明顯,主要表現在缺乏共識、協同不力、政府缺位、市場無序、隊伍缺失。

    “家庭盡主責、政府兜底線、社會廣參與。”佘宇建議,以此為格局,建立健全多層多元的服務供給機制、科學合理的經費投入與分擔機制、無縫銜接的跨部門統籌協調機制、優質高效的質量控制與行業監管機制,盡力而為、量力而行,構建中國幼有所育政策體系。

    如何對托育機構進行規范管理

    今年的政府工作報告提出,要針對實施全面二孩政策后的新情況,加快發展多種形式的嬰幼兒照護服務,支持社會力量興辦托育服務機構,加強兒童安全保障。

    《關于促進3歲以下嬰幼兒照護服務發展的指導意見》提出,規范發展多種形式的嬰幼兒照護服務機構。加強嬰幼兒照護服務專業化、規范化建設,遵循嬰幼兒發展規律,建立健全嬰幼兒照護服務的標準規范體系。

    作為牽頭部門工作人員,國家衛生健康委人口家庭司陳晨在會上表示,國家衛健委將圍繞以下三點全面安排部署工作:第一,家庭是嬰幼兒成長最溫暖最安全的環境,遵循嬰幼兒成長的特點和規律,重點為家庭及嬰幼兒照顧者提供技術,增強科學養育能力。第二,發揮社區公共服務的功能,支持和引導社會力量依托社區,在老百姓家門口提供安全的嬰幼兒照護服務。第三,規范發展多種形式的嬰幼兒照護服務,必須以科學規范作為首要條件,建立健全嬰幼兒照護服務的法律法規體系和標準規范體系。

    實際上,在各地實踐中,上海對托育機構的規范管理走在了前面。去年以來,上海出臺“1+2+1”文件,開始受理3歲以下幼兒托育機構的申辦。“1”是指由上海市人民政府印發的《關于促進和加強本市3歲以下幼兒托育服務工作的指導意見》;“2”是指市政府辦公廳印發的《上海市3歲以下幼兒托育機構管理暫行辦法》,以及由教育、衛生計生、食藥監等16部門聯合出臺的《上海市3歲以下幼兒托育機構設置標準(試行)》;第二個“1”指的是《上海市3歲以下幼兒托育機構從業人員與幼兒園師資隊伍建設三年行動計劃(2018—2020年)》。

    可以說,上海從老百姓的切身需求出發,采取地方創制性立法方式,為促進和加強3歲以下幼兒托育服務工作闖出了一條新路。

    “目前,我們也在研究對機構的評估,從環境、課程實施等角度來監督和管理托育機構,同時利用互聯網工具來進行各個方面的支持。”上海市人口早期發展協會副會長兼秘書長劉金華說。

    談到這項工作,北京市衛生健康委人口家庭處處長嚴進說,北京在前期調研的基礎上,形成了三個基本考慮:一要做好系統謀劃,二要做好部門協同,三要做好分步實施、穩扎穩打。

    如何引導社會力量提供多元服務

    “我想問問做政策研究的老師,您認為家庭式托育服務應該納入政府的管理范疇嗎?”在互動問答環節,北師大一名研究生提出了自己感興趣的問題。

    “我認為家庭式的托育服務形式應該納入政府的管理范疇,進而促其規范發展,而且可以把它歸類到非營利。”浙江師范大學教授呂蘋說,在政府、社會、市場三方力量中,“非營利力量”在托育服務多元化的發展過程中必然會充當重要角色,家庭的力量可以作為非營利的重要力量來呈現,而且日益發展的大數據技術,可以幫助政府把這種小規模的機構納入到管理范疇中來。

    據劉金華介紹,目前,上海已經形成了嬰幼兒照護服務的六種模式:家庭服務模式、社區服務模式、醫教結合模式、托幼一體服務模式、市場運作模式、企業園區服務模式。其中社區服務模式主要是通過免費或低于市場價出租提供場地,引入社會組織或專業機構運營,為居民家庭提供服務。

    作為在社區的民宅里提供托育服務的機構代表,姚倩結合工作中遇到的問題提出:“我們希望社區街道、派出所和社區衛生服務中心,都能夠跟托育機構達成一個聯動。比如,手足口和一些腸道疾病的預防和處理,能不能在社區分解掉。”她同時希望,促進機構標準化的政策盡快出臺,國家能夠在監督管理之下,對機構給予資金扶持,并加強工作人員崗前培訓。

    0—3歲嬰幼兒照護服務體系如何盡快有效構建起來,還有很多問題亟待破解。龐麗娟在總結發言時呼吁與會研究人員,要重點關注和研究管理體制、舉辦主體、舉辦形式、財政投入、師資隊伍建設、督導評估和獎勵規范制度七大關鍵政策問題,共同努力建立、拓展有質量的0—3歲嬰幼兒照護服務體系。

    《中國教育報》2019年07月21日第2版 

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