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    國際托育政策發展:市場化還是政府責任?

    發布時間:2019-07-21 作者:錢雨 來源:中國教育報

    近日,國務院辦公廳印發《關于促進3歲以下嬰幼兒照護服務發展的指導意見》,指出要多種形式開展嬰幼兒照護服務,逐步滿足人民群眾對嬰幼兒照護服務的需求。

    嬰幼兒教養是應該充分調動社會力量的積極性,將早期教育推向市場化,還是應當由政府承擔更多的責任,減輕家庭的負擔?這一問題的答案取決于把“育兒”看成個別難題還是群體困境,把嬰幼兒托育看作家庭議題還是公共福利。對中國家長而言,育兒成本首先是錢,還包括大量的照護時間與精力。當家庭困境成為普遍現象,必將導致社會難題。

    “幼吾幼,以及人之幼”是中國兒童教育福利政策制定的儒家正義論思想的源頭。對兒童的關愛天性是人類“善”的起源,仁愛之心也成為東西方追求公平公正的起點。從國際視角來看,嬰幼兒托育不僅僅是家庭的責任,也是各級政府的責任。如果鼓勵商業化的資本大量投入早期照護服務領域,家庭的重負將不減反增。其短期后果包括婦女就業率降低、生育率降低等。而從長期效應來看,學前教育是一個國家脫貧攻堅的重要戰略,是社會公平和教育公平的開端,也是經濟回報率最高的教育階段。世界各國各級政府對嬰幼兒托育的支持政策,主要體現在以下四方面:

    為嬰幼兒提供免費或低廉的托育服務

    1975年瑞典就頒布了《學前學校法》,規定地方政府有完善公立托幼體系的責任。在瑞典,1—5歲的托幼服務由市政部門提供,國家教育署統一管理。3歲以上可享受每年525小時的免費教育。瑞典托育機構以公立為主,兼有家庭日托所等多種形式,全年、全日開放,照護時間靈活,體現出托育服務旨在減輕家長負擔、提供婦女就業、促進婦女發展的服務定位。

    英、法、美等國的家庭福利與育兒補貼也減輕了家庭育兒負擔。英國政府2017年起為所有2歲兒童提供每年600小時的免費教育,并將3歲兒童的免費教育時間增至每周30個小時。法國依據家庭收入與子女數量發放育兒補貼,部分2歲幼兒可享受免費托育的幼兒學校。

    對于少子化壓力顯著的國家,免費托育成為政府重要的人口政策之一。如日本面對著人口老齡化、少子化雙重壓力,生育率僅為1.43,新生兒連續兩年不到百萬人。為鼓勵生育,當前日本為全體3歲幼兒以及2歲以下貧困幼兒提供免費教育,2歲為每周免費55個小時,0—2歲和3—4歲分別可獲得最高4.2萬日元和3.7萬日元的保育津貼。

    為家長提供科學的家庭教育

    家庭承擔嬰幼兒教養的首要責任,但支持與指導家庭教育也是地方政府的重要職責。世界各國政府通過鼓勵入戶式家訪、免費家教培訓等多種家教服務形式,積極為家長提供科學指導,為父母提供育兒支持。通過創造良好的家庭教育環境,政府與家庭、學前教育機構、社區等密切合作,促進嬰幼兒在家庭中身心健康發展。

    1969年,以色列創立了“學前兒童家長指導項目”,現已得到幾十個國家和地區政府的資金支持。1977年,美國“零到三”作為一個國家非營利組織成立,通過家訪項目評估,為家長、政策制定者和教育者提供信息支持。1981年,美國密蘇里州教育部門創辦了“父母即老師”的家教項目,目前已將項目推廣至全美47個州。2017年,巴西投入10億美元預算發展“快樂兒童項目”,對貧困家庭0—3歲嬰幼兒開展家訪,綜合了來自健康、社會福利、教育、司法和文化等各部門的行動,以支持兒童早期發展。研究顯示,參加了這些高質量家教項目的兒童,在認知、語言和學業等多個領域有更好的發展。

    加強弱勢兒童的早期干預

    諾貝爾獎獲得者、經濟學家赫克曼認為,接受早期干預的兒童年齡越小,其收益越大;干預時間越遲,處理兒童發展問題付出的代價就越大。早期干預研究既是各級政府幫助處境不利兒童的重要手段,也是促進教育公平與社會公平的重要途徑。

    在諸多的干預項目中,佩里實驗最為中國學者熟知。該實驗對123名美國非裔幼兒進行了長期追蹤研究,發現早期干預的年回報率達到7%—10%,每投入1美元,被干預的個體40歲時可獲得16美元以上的回報率。許多早期干預直接關注弱勢兒童或家庭,也有以托幼中心為基礎的干預行動。不同種類的早期干預有其不同的側重點。例如,在美國,“公平起點”關注早期讀寫能力的培養,側重兒童與家長的教育;“早期開端計劃”側重為嬰幼兒提供免費的早期教育機會與營養健康指導;“芝加哥親子中心項目”要求百分百的家長參與率,通過家長學校、家長工作坊等,指導父母幫助兒童發揮自己的潛力。

    多種形式發展地方嬰幼兒托育服務

    在許多西方國家,由社區、博物館、幼兒園、教會等機構組織的早教活動非常豐富,只要合理規劃,幾乎可以把一周的行程安排得有聲有色。例如,在美國杰克遜的公共圖書館里,每天都有不同年齡段嬰幼兒的早期閱讀和手工活動。活動不僅免費,還為孩子提供點心。在休斯頓兒童博物館里,每天都有專業人員組織豐富多彩的體驗活動,博物館兒童課程也成為機構教育的重要補充。這些早教活動受到地方政府的管理和協助,市政府每年為這些早教活動和家教項目提供固定的預算資金。

    按照心理學家布朗芬布倫納的生態系統理論,環境對兒童發展具有重要影響。兒童處于生態系統的核心,家庭、機構、政府、社會構成了環繞于兒童的外部環境。學前教育應該是社會的共同責任。為了促進公眾利益,在各國政府的引導下,托育服務形式日益多樣化。法國政府自2004年開始實施“托兒所計劃”,舉辦0—3歲托兒所的企業可以獲得免稅優惠政策。

    為了中國兒童與家庭的幸福生活,為了中華民族與社會的美好未來,我國政府也應積極承擔起嬰幼兒照護與教養的責任。兒童利益優先原則是文明社會基本的價值準則,是國際社會倡導的基本倫理。照護嬰幼兒健康成長是全社會的共同責任,中央和地方各級政府應承擔主導責任。

    通過構建基本的0—3歲嬰幼兒照護公共服務體系,可以保障嬰幼兒接受公平、普惠、安全、優質的早期教育。有條件的地區應當統籌幼兒園與托育服務機構資源,推進托幼一體管理,鼓勵、支持幼兒園舉辦托育班,招收2歲幼兒。托育機構應當符合安全標準,具備適宜的場地、設施和專業的工作人員。地方政府應建立健全托育機構和從業人員的評估監測制度,加強質量監管。包括托育服務在內的學前教育應實行政府主導、社會參與、公辦民辦并舉的辦學體制。中央與地方各級政府應積極發展公辦托育服務,大力支持、推廣與監管高質量的普惠性早期教養服務,讓每個兒童、每個家庭和每個群體共享發展成果。

    (作者系華東師范大學學前教育系副教授)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月21日第2版 

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