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    超前學習 挫敗自信心

    發布時間:2019-07-21 作者:華愛華 來源:中國教育報

    ■科學做好入學準備

    開欄的話

    大班幼兒入小學需要準備什么,家庭該如何做好準備……相信這些問題每一位家長都十分關心,同時也為之頭疼。2019年教育部組織開展的全國學前教育宣傳月,主題就定為“科學做好入學準備”。為廣泛深入做好宣傳工作,學前周刊今起刊發由中國學前教育研究會組織專家撰寫的系列文章,向家長和社會普及科學的入學準備。

    浩浩剛上大班就被家長送進了奧數班,提前學習了小學生才可能接觸的一些數學應用題。奧數班不是靠聽力理解(大人讀題),就是看圖猜題,因為缺少了真實情境的體驗和實物操作,浩浩經常因為不理解題意而做不出題,于是耳邊經常充斥著“笨,真笨”的責罵聲,以至于他偷偷地把作業本和鉛筆藏起來,以為那樣就可以逃避作業。但媽媽總能買來新的本子和鉛筆,浩浩照舊要在責罵聲中做完規定的作業。

    應當知道,處于直觀思維階段的幼兒,主要是通過親身體驗、動手操作來理解知識、獲取經驗的。超前學習的最大問題就是,讓幼兒付出更大的意志、努力去學習以后輕而易舉就能學會的知識。當幼兒不易理解超越他們年齡的知識時,特別是成人因孩子理解和接受很慢而發出嘆息或責怪時,孩子就會認為自己真的很笨。這種“習得性愚笨”一旦產生,非常不利于兒童的后繼學業,導致他們在入學以后容易對學習產生被動、排斥、反感的情緒,遇到學習上的困難也會懶得動腦、輕言放棄,甚至會認為自己永遠都學不好。所以,正確的做法是,讓孩子做適合他年齡特點和符合其發展規律的事,多讓他們在游戲中體驗成功,獲得經驗,對學習永遠充滿樂趣。

    (作者系華東師范大學教授,中國學前教育研究會副理事長)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月21日第1版 

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