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    讓學生成為學習的主人

    ——加拿大瑪麗·沃德學校對自主學習的探索

    發布時間:2019-07-19 作者:劉文琴 來源:中國教育報

    自主學習是指學生能夠選擇感興趣的學習內容,以自己的速度和方式進行學習。自主學習能夠提升學生對于學習的興趣,獲得積極的學習體驗,還能夠鍛煉學生對學習的規劃、監控、調節的能力,成為一個終身學習者。聯合國教科文組織在《教育——財富蘊藏其中》這一文獻中指出,21世紀的學習者應該學會學習,終身學習是21世紀人的通行證。因此,各國教育工作者都致力于尋求培養學生自主學習能力的方法。

    在加拿大的瑪麗·沃德學校(Mary Ward Catholic Secondary School),學生每天都在有條不紊地自主學習而不失紀律。那么,瑪麗·沃德學校是如何讓學生的自主學習成為可能呢?

    紀律

    嚴格的考勤制度

    瑪麗·沃德學校是加拿大自我導向型學習學校聯盟(the Canadian Coalition of Self-Directed Learning Schools)的創始成員。

    學期開始時,學生與助教協商制訂自己的學習計劃,根據自我需求進行調整,選擇適合自己智力、學習風格的學習指南和教學方法,如講座、研討會、實驗室、小組工作、獨立學習和一對一教學等。如果學生認為自己已經完成了本單元的學習內容,可參加單元測試。如果測試結果顯示學生已掌握了該單元的 60%及以上,即可進入下一單元的學習。倘若學生在學期結束前完成了10個單元的課程,可以申請參加瑪麗·沃德的暑期學校,暑期學校是常規學校的延續,學生可以在這里完成常規學年里的困難課程,在修滿了高中期間的學分后,就可提前畢業。

    瑪麗·沃德學校認為,任何學科的學習單元都涉及一系列活動,如果學生因缺勤而中斷學習過程,學生本人及其同伴都會因此失去寶貴的經驗,而這些經驗是不可能完全重新獲得的。如果這種情況經常發生,學生就難以在課程中取得成功。因此,瑪麗·沃德學校要求學生在所有的上學日準時出勤,不允許學生留在家里寫論文或準備考試。

    為此,瑪麗·沃德學校制定了嚴格的考勤制度。學生每天早上8:40必須在自己所屬的助教小組打卡。如有學生缺勤,學校的考勤系統就會自動電話聯系家長。每天午餐后和放學前,學生也需要打卡。另外,學校會在指定區域進行定期抽查,當該抽查通知下達后,學生必須立即前往指定區域進行出勤考查。正在上課或開研討會的學生須在活動結束后向助教書面說明原因。如果學生缺勤,家長應在當天上午 8:00—9:00 之間告知學校。如果家長或監護人沒有致電學校,那么學生返校時應攜帶家長的書面缺勤說明,并在上課前交到考勤秘書處。考勤秘書會給學生一張準許上課的證明,以便學生正常參加他的助教小組。

    保障

    豐富的資源與教育合作項目

    為了保障學生的自主學習,滿足學生的個性化學習需求,瑪麗·沃德學校為學生營造了寬松自由的學習環境,配備了豐富的學習資源以及專業的教師團隊。

    在這里,助教是一個非常重要的角色。每位助教會帶領18名高一至高三不同年級的學生。助教的主要工作是,考查學生的日常出勤情況;和學生一起計劃制定他們的學習目標;為學生的學習提供指導;監控學生學習進展情況;與學生家長保持聯系,讓家長了解孩子的學業、社交、情緒等方面的發展情況。

    圖書館周一至周五向學生開放,館內提供了多種類型的學習資源以支持學生的自主學習,包括參考書、雜志、報紙、錄像帶、數據庫等資源。圖書館會定期舉辦講座,教不同年級的學生學習查詢資料、做研究,幫助他們了解信息是如何組織、創造、用于溝通的。

    瑪麗·沃德學校認為,在互聯網高速發展的新時代,信息素養是學生的必備素質,能夠幫助學生獲得更多知識,增加學習成功的機會、具備終身學習的條件。因此,學生們應學會使用不同類型的資源,包括印刷資源、數字資源和用于儲存、檢索、發送、轉換信息的視聽媒體資源。

    在以學生為中心的環境中,瑪麗·沃德學校強調積極學習、反思與合作。教師共同致力于開發有意義、有深度的課程,注重跨學科研究,提供體驗式學習、遠足等項目。此外,學校還與其他學校、企業、工廠合作,組織“帶我們的孩子去工作”等活動,通過讓學生到社會及各個工作崗位中進行實地體驗,豐富知識、鍛煉技能、培養態度,幫助學生獲得清晰的職業認知,明確自己想要從事的職業領域,并朝著職業目標奮斗。

    評價

    必要時反饋與干預

    每完成一單元的學習后,學生需在學校的電腦上進行單元測試。測試時間為期6天,學生需在這6天內完成測試,若6天內未完成或錯過測試,系統將自動計“0”分,學生就不能進行新單元的學習。學生測試后,教師會在5個學校日內完成評分。一般來說,學生測試的正確率在60%以上,便可以進行下一個單元的學習。這“60%”被瑪麗·沃德學校稱為掌握學習,其目的是確保學生掌握必需的知識,以增加他們在大學、工作領域及生活中的成功機會。如果學生沒有達到掌握學習的最低標準,科任教師可以針對不同學生提出要求——重新參與評價活動;換一種形式進行評價;重新學習該單元;調整該學習單元的難度;遵循學校的相關規定,退選該單元課程。

    此外,瑪麗·沃德學校還制定了一個“條款0政策”,以督促那些沒有達到計劃目標的學生。學校全年有三次檢查,分別是第四單元、第八單元和第十二單元。檢查日期公布在學校的日程安排里。助教會持續監控,必要的時候干預學生的學習進度,以防他們不能通過檢查。

    當學生的學習情況沒有與計劃目標日期保持一致并且不存在可被諒解的理由時,科任教師會在檢查期內在未完成的任意單元或部分單元,并采取“條款0”警告——不但學生們當下的平均成績會受到影響,而且助教會及時將這一變化告知家長。當學生收到“條款0”的警告時,應立即與科教老師協商,討論或提交未完成的作業。一旦學生提交了該單元的工作并獲得評分,“條款0”則會被撤銷,學生的平均成績也會隨之提高。

    在瑪麗·沃德學校,學生的助教會及時向家長反映學生在學校的學習、情緒等情況。同時,學校為科任教師與家長提供面談時間。面談之后,家長可以更好地了解學生在不同學科方面的學習表現,還可以就學生特定學科的問題,與科任教師進行探討,教師可以給出相關建議,提出提高學生成績的方法。

    自主學習是終身學習者必備的能力,瑪麗·沃德學校一直將學生作為一切活動的中心,致力于為學生營造寬松自由的學習環境,制定嚴格的考勤制度確保學生參與學習的全過程,安排富有愛心、責任感的助教指導學生的學習與生活,提供豐富的資源滿足學生的個性化需求,開發合作項目讓學生體驗不同職業,明晰自己的奮斗目標,秉承掌握學習的理念,讓每個學生都能有所學,最終激發自己的潛能。

    瑪麗·沃德學校的做法啟發了我們,培養學生的自主學習能力要堅持學習者的主體地位,嚴明紀律保障學習的自由及有序,以積極有效的反饋促進學生的“真”學,同時還應調動學校環境、教師、學習資源、家長等因素,形成一個專業系統化的支持網絡,共同合作參與幫助學生獲得成功。

    (作者單位:南京師范大學教育科學學院)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月19日第5版 

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