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    入學準備的4項基本原則

    發布時間:2019-07-18 作者:李一凡 來源:中國教育報

    在很多家長眼里,入學準備主要就是提前認字、拼音、算術,這一認識存在很大的誤區。

    雖然孩子幼兒園畢業了,但仍處于從幼兒園向小學的過渡階段,各方面能力尚在發展和準備中,暑假是一個非常好的過渡期、準備期,能否有效發揮作用,取決于家長如何合理安排。

    尊重孩子的身心發展規律

    有些家長說,自己正打算暑假就把孩子所有的玩具全部清理掉,書桌臺燈、筆袋書包正式成為新寵。小心!家長的這種雄心壯志可能正在扼殺孩子對小學的向往之心。讓孩子長時間坐在椅子上進行讀寫算等枯燥訓練的做法,有違孩子心理認知發展特點和規律,不利于孩子的身體健康和動作發展。

    按照皮亞杰認知發展心理學的觀點,入學前的孩子屬于從前運算階段向具體運算階段的過渡時期。這時孩子仍然以具體形象思維為主,抽象思維尚在萌芽,他們依然需要在真實的生活情境中,依賴豐富的材料,通過大量的感知、經驗與體驗來建構對世界的認知。

    很多低年級小學教師反饋,有些孩子數學學習剛開始還很順利,但逐漸會遇到問題,究其緣由是發現孩子過早進行了計算訓練,卻缺少動手操作的感性經驗的積累。這些孩子沒有遵循自然的發展規律,從具體形象到抽象符號的思維邏輯發展被成人人為地阻斷了。

    所以,入學前孩子還需要大量的玩,各種低結構開放性材料,如可以深入探究的拼插、建構類玩具,積木、插片、磁力棒、多米諾骨牌和沙、泥、水、石頭等自然材料,將是他適應小學學習過程中的必要陪伴,這些比大量的練習題有更長遠意義。

    認識和重視學習品質的培養

    學習品質,是指個體在活動過程中表現出來的積極態度和良好行為傾向,既包括興趣、動機、堅持性與抗挫折、獨立性、專注力、計劃性、時間洞察力等特質要素,也包括精細加工、深度理解、反思、批判、創造、想象等具體的學習方法與技能;既包括個體獨立學習過程中的認知、情感、行為等特征,也包括他們在社會學習中與他人合作、溝通、討論的特征。

    學習品質強調的并不是兒童能夠學到的具體知識或具體經驗,而是如何學習。“怎么學”才是兒童學習能力發展與提高的實質,是個體適應終身發展和社會發展需要的必備品格和關鍵能力。

    在北京教科院承擔的“協同教育視角下兒童學習能力的促進研究”項目中,通過對小學低年級教師的訪談了解到,那些在抗干擾能力、專注能力和堅持性等學習品質中表現優秀的孩子,在學校學業成功的可能性更大,他們有踏實認真的學習態度,興趣廣泛,好奇心強,喜歡提問,善于觀察,具有較強的主動性和堅持性,愿意探究。

    相反,那些注意力渙散、傾聽能力較弱、情緒低落、缺乏興趣和主動性、自我控制能力較弱的孩子,則容易出現入學適應不良的問題。在這些孩子中,不乏被提前灌輸了大量小學知識甚至出現厭學情緒的孩子。

    好奇心是一切學習活動的內在動機,是主動性的源泉。家長不要以嘮叨、強制或嚇唬的方式過早地向孩子宣泄學業壓力,扼殺孩子的好奇心和求知欲,而要陪伴孩子在生活和游戲中,在探索、操作、發現、體驗、交往和表達中逐漸培養起學習的主動性和良好的學習品質。

    要注意科學培養專注力

    專注力是學習品質的一個重要因素。真正的專注力一定是孩子在做自己感興趣的事情過程中培養起來的,那種全神貫注地將熱情與投入結合在一起的體驗,心理學稱之為“心流”。

    在心流體驗下,人們容易失去時間和空間的意識,心流體驗越充沛,越能獲得幸福感。孩子在仔細觀察自然界中的螞蟻搬家、玩自己最喜歡的玩具的時候,讀繪本、畫畫、做手工的時候,幫爸爸媽媽做事情、收拾玩具、擦桌子的時候,都會專心致志地沉浸在心流體驗中。

    遺憾的是,很多家長一會兒給孩子送杯水,一會兒給孩子削個蘋果,在孩子專心游戲或看書時,一會兒對孩子做的事情指指點點;還有的家長在一定時間內給孩子布置過多的任務,頻繁更換,常常人為干擾和打斷孩子的專注體驗。

    暑假里,家長不要急功近利給孩子設定太多任務目標,要真正尊重孩子的興趣,關注或參與到孩子深度投入的狀態中,給予必要的鼓勵和回應,這才是對孩子專注力最大的支持。

    培養孩子積極做事的能力

    我曾做過一項關于幼小銜接的調查,小學班主任發現,真正對孩子適應影響最大的就是生活自理能力,其次是傾聽能力和社交能力。

    生活自理能力一般和培養獨立性相關。蒙臺梭利認為,兒童獨立性的內涵包括照顧自己、照顧他人和照顧環境的能力。比如每天早晨起床,能夠自己緊湊地完成穿衣、洗漱、吃飯、背書包上學這一系列事情,能夠自己收拾書包、整理作業,還能夠學習觀察和關注周圍其他人的需要,提供幫助,愛護維護周圍環境和公共設施等,這些能力可以讓孩子在學校照顧好自己,和同學愉快相處,熱愛班集體,并能更好地融入集體。

    所以,家長要轉變“孩子只要專心學習就行,其他事都不用管”的觀念,克服包辦代替的習慣,暑假期間要多給孩子做事情的機會,讓孩子也參與到家庭事務中,比如參與做家務、掃地、擦桌子、收拾整理書柜玩具柜,學習垃圾分類和清理等,培養孩子的任務意識、責任心和做事的能力。

    陳鶴琴在《活教育的教學原則》中提到,凡是兒童自己能夠做的就應當讓他自己做,做了就與事物發生直接接觸,得到的就是直接經驗,就知道做事的困難,認識事物的性質。做事的興趣,越做越濃;做事的能力,越做越強。

    相信這樣真摯而樸實的道理,人人都懂,更希望每個家庭都能遵循這樣的教育規律開啟小學的成功之旅。

    (作者單位:北京教育科學研究院早期教育研究所)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月18日第7版 

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