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    用半日時間實現整日發展

    ——半日班幼兒生活自理能力培養探索

    發布時間:2019-07-14 作者:蘭茜 來源:中國教育報

    “入園難”一直是社會焦點話題。為緩解入園壓力,我園成為北京市西城區首批“半日班”試點園,主要針對初入園正在適應分離焦慮的小班幼兒,探索開辦半日制班,以滿足多樣化的入園需要。

    初入園半日班幼兒生活自理能力普遍較弱

    經過一段時間的觀察,我們發現半日小班幼兒相比全日小班幼兒,分離焦慮期較短,絕大多數幼兒都能很快適應新的集體生活,且表現出心情愉悅、不易生病、出勤率高的特點。但由于幼兒每天在園時間只有3個半小時,幼兒自主生活時間和同伴交往時間減半,自理能力較弱,主要表現為生活中較多依賴教師。

    基于半日小班幼兒的現狀,如何讓幼兒能在半日的時間里實現整日的發展,如何有效培養幼兒生活自理能力是我們探究的重點。

    我們采用了行為研究法、家長調查問卷等方法,對半日小(1)班29名幼兒初入園時生活自理能力的各項指標進行了評價。以進餐、洗手等5項最基本的自我服務內容為評價項目,以“在成人幫助與提示下能夠獨立完成”(好Ⅰ)“能夠獨立完成,但完成有困難”(中Ⅱ)和“完全無法獨立完成”(較弱Ⅲ)為評價指標進行評價,結果如表1。

    通過后續調查,我們發現半日小班幼兒自理能力較弱的原因大致包括兩點。第一,家長包辦過多,幼兒在家動手機會極少。第二,家長認為幼兒年齡小,自我服務等長大后自然就會習得,無須著急培養,現階段更關注幼兒智力、交往等方面的發展。

    針對半日班幼兒的年齡特點、學習方式及作息習慣,我們決定從半日生活各環節進行滲透引導,引領家長轉變教育觀念,用科學、適宜的方式呵護、助力幼兒成長。

    發揮“一室兩用”優勢,激發幼兒動手愿望

    半日班環境最大的特點就是一間教室兩班共用。起初我們認為這是弊端,會給幼兒生活、游戲造成諸多不便。但在與幼兒共同生活、共創環境的過程中,我們發現了其獨特之處。

    入園初,為了幫助幼兒適應新環境,我們常開展“認識小標記”活動,其目的在于幫助幼兒識別、記住代表自己的標記,以便在集體中找到自己的生活用品,進行自我服務。由于上下午班幼兒共用一間教室,個別幼兒在自己的衣柜、座位、水杯格、毛巾架上看到另一個小朋友的照片,這引發了幼兒的好奇和教師的思考。我們給予幼兒充裕的時間、空間開展“找一找”活動。他們驚喜地發現,在班級很多地方都隱藏著一個“神秘的朋友”,和自己“同住一個家”。于是,在細致觀察幼兒興趣和需要的基礎上,教師充分利用其環境特點,在一日生活中激發幼兒動手愿望,實現自我服務、快樂發展。

    面對成排、成列一模一樣的水杯格,幼兒常因找不到水杯造成情緒波動,出現飲水量不足等情況。經過觀察,我們發現幼兒識別圖像并不困難,識別標記所在位置才是真正的難題。但“共同的標記”讓幼兒很快找到并記住了相應的位置。教師又與幼兒創設“好朋友干杯”墻飾,幼兒每喝一次水就將一個標記貼在另一個伙伴的大水杯里,并搶著和老師、伙伴“干杯”。喝水的次數增多了,飲水量自然增加了。進餐過程中,我們提供多種點心、水果,供幼兒自主選擇,鼓勵幼兒自由選擇餐位,與“神秘朋友共享午餐”。進餐完畢,幼兒還能在環境的暗示下,自己動手將小盤子沖洗干凈,為另一個班級的伙伴做好餐具消毒準備。

    除此之外,依托“一室兩用”,在游戲過程中,我們將上午班幼兒在娃娃家里穿衣裝扮、洗衣做飯的游戲過程通過視頻記錄下來,呈現給下午班的幼兒,引發幼兒在玩中學、做中學。

    家園一致是半日班幼兒生活自理能力提升的保證

    育兒并不是家庭或幼兒園單方面的工作。半日班幼兒大部分時間都需要家長在家教育。因此,取得家庭的積極配合尤為重要,否則,來自任何一方的消極影響都將抵消幼兒園生活自理能力教育的作用。我們與家長一起探究,達成共識,在育兒方面既要有共同目標,又要承擔起各自不同的任務,園內重在感受和體驗,家里重在鞏固和練習。

    首先,多途徑、高頻率的家園溝通,為家長厘清了觀念。我們通過家長會、致家長的一封信、家園專欄等途徑強化幼兒自理能力培養的意義。每月通過午間約談展開家園一對一深度談話;每周利用班級博客、微信群呈現幼兒半日活動、個體表現及家庭指導重點;每天隨時解答家長育兒方面的困惑,明確“大人放手,孩子動手”的教育原則,把真實生活、自我服務的機會還給幼兒。

    實踐中我們發現,很多隔輩老人承擔著在家看護半日班幼兒的重任,他們的做法普遍是百依百順。如果觀念不變,習慣就不變,習慣不變,結果就不會改變。在開展“爺爺奶奶大家談”活動中,我們一起觀看幼兒活動視頻,解讀幼兒發展,使老人直觀感受到平淡生活中的吃、穿、住、行,蘊含著幼兒發展的契機,使他們逐漸意識到包辦代替的不良影響。慢慢地,他們不再一味剝奪幼兒主動學習發展的機會,反而能放開手,鼓勵幼兒自我服務了。

    其次,講方法、細指導,提升家長科學育兒專業本領。在與家長交流中,我們發現家園要求不統一常導致教育脫節,問題反復。例如,教師會通過游戲等多種方式調動幼兒獨立穿衣的愿望,從而使他們逐漸掌握穿衣、掖褲子的方法。但家長往往會在穿衣過程中把衣服套在幼兒身上,讓幼兒伸出胳膊穿好,再幫忙掖好衣服。不同的要求,導致幼兒在園已經逐漸掌握的本領,回到家得不到鞏固,依舊會出現等待、依賴等現象。

    可見,對家長的細致指導十分重要。因此,我們將培養幼兒獨立做事的具體做法,以圖文、視頻等形式詳細介紹給家長,請家長幫助幼兒由淺到深、由易到難掌握自理技能。比如在吃香蕉時,家長可以把部分香蕉切口,然后支持幼兒主動探索;脫衣服時,按照上下交替的順序進行,避免著涼并嘗試整理。

    再其次,常反饋、重實效,為家長育兒注入積極動力。當幼兒體驗到“我行”“我能”時,自信也隨之產生。因此,我們鼓勵家長觀察發現幼兒的閃光點,及時給予評價反饋,不斷強化幼兒的積極行為。我們通過開辦“家庭小能手”攝影展,錄制幼兒生活小視頻,展示幼兒進步。

    經過一個學年的家園配合,學年末我們又對班級全體幼兒進行了評價,結果如表2。

    數據顯示,通過家園共育,半日班幼兒自我服務的意識與能力都得到了提升。研究過程也帶給我們許多啟示與思考。首先,家園雙方都要遵循幼兒年齡特點和成長規律,充分分析半日班幼兒發展現狀,選擇適宜的支持方式促其發展。其次,習慣是在不斷重復中逐漸養成的一種比較穩定的行為傾向,培養幼兒自理能力要注意循序漸進,持之以恒。

    (作者單位:北京市西城區潔民幼兒園)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月14日第2版 

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