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    去自然真實的成長環境里找“快樂因子”

    發布時間:2019-07-11 作者:那小石 來源:中國教育報

    一個孩子認真地問爸爸:為什么你的童年比我的更有趣?你們可以在林間奔跑,可以在樹屋附近捉迷藏,還可以騎馬穿過沼澤……

    兒子的問題讓爸爸陷入了沉思。兒童天然親近大自然,但如今科技在進步,自然在后退。童年與大自然割裂,孩子失去了什么?

    這位爸爸叫理查德·洛夫,他把自己對兒童與自然關系的思考寫成了《林間最后的小孩》,書中提出了一個里程碑式的概念——“大自然缺失癥”。它不是一個醫學名詞,但卻引發了全球對兒童身心健康的持續關注。科學家們紛紛提供證據,認為由于缺乏與大自然的接觸,如今的孩子出現了一系列令人擔憂的問題,包括兒童肥胖、注意力缺陷、多動、孤獨、抑郁、哮喘等。

    這種“去自然化”的童年,造就了作家三毛筆下的“塑料兒童”——從小被電視、可樂、零食、動漫包圍,只知道上課、補習,對室外游戲、夏夜星空、月光下的山巒毫無興趣——三毛認為他們失去了大自然賦予人類的靈性,已經無法與自然和諧共存。

    威斯康星大學教育心理學教授威爾遜認為,大自然能賦予兒童敏銳的感受力,包括視覺、聽覺、嗅覺、味覺和觸覺。而這些都是創造力的基礎。

    自然帶給孩子的是一個更為廣闊遼遠的世界,能豐富孩子的精神世界,給孩子以心靈的滋養,使孩子永保好奇心與創造力。

    日本諾貝爾物理學獎得主江崎玲于奈對此深有感觸,他說:一個人在幼年通過接觸大自然,會萌生出最初的、天真的探究興趣和欲望,這是非常重要的科學啟蒙教育,是通往產生一代科學巨匠的路。

    “去自然化”還與今天越來越普遍的兒童過敏有關。據中國城市嬰幼兒過敏流行病學調查結果顯示,2歲以下的嬰幼兒中,約有 40.9%的家長自報孩子曾發生或正在發生過敏性疾病癥狀。

    為什么兒童過敏會成為流行病?目前人們普遍接受的有兩種觀點,一是環境說,工業化帶來的污染會影響兒童的免疫機制。最近的30年里,工業化國家過敏性疾病的發病率增加了200%—300%,發達國家的過敏率普遍高于發展中國家,城市地區通常高于鄉村。另一個是菌群說。人類一直致力于對抗各種微生物,家長們更是努力清除孩子可能接觸到的各種細菌。孩子接觸不到微生物,免疫系統沒練過兵,分不清敵友,對外來刺激過度敏感。

    倫敦大學學院的醫學微生物教授魯克認為,隨著衛生條件的提高,很多家庭都無法“培養”出維持兒童健康所需的豐富菌群。

    正常情況下,人體從頭到腳,里里外外都覆蓋著細菌。自然環境中的細菌和病毒能減少孩子過敏或患上自身免疫系統疾病的概率。生活得太“干凈”,反而對孩子的成長不利。

    《早教的秘密》一書中說:孩子的心智具有一種發展序列,首先是觸覺,然后是嗅覺、味覺、聽覺、視覺……皮膚是生命最具靈性的部分,除了母親的撫觸,讓孩子的皮膚可以盡早親近大自然的陽光、風、草、石、溪水等是必需的。

    有同事就說她家娃小時候,由于對觸覺的培養不夠重視,以至于孩子現在對臟臟的黏黏的東西很不適應。沒娃的同事不解:這似乎沒毛病哦?“踩坑”的老母親惋惜地直拍大腿:麻煩大了,將來他生了孩子,誰給嬰兒擦屁股?總不能找機器人吧?

    這還真不是杞人憂天,童年早期落下的適應和生存課,將來會很難彌補。

    一個在城里長大的女孩,第一次回農村過春節,憋得直哭也不肯上廁所。孩子不肯蹲茅坑的背后,隱藏的是生存和適應能力的缺失。世界是多元的,這個世界上肯定還有比茅坑更簡陋的設施。試問,一個連茅坑都不敢蹲的孩子,放到野外,能發展出生存能力嗎?

    現在的孩子一出生就開始和電子產品、網絡游戲打交道。有家長抱怨孩子沉溺虛擬世界,孩子反駁說:“我一出生世界就是這樣的啊!你讓我去戶外活動,可你帶我出去爬過幾次山,踢過幾回球?”

    孩子的話沒錯,如果生活中有比網絡游戲更好玩的事情,就算你給他手機和電腦,他也不會沉溺其中。

    想讓孩子擺脫網絡游戲的捆綁,最主要的是給孩子提供一個真實健康的成長環境。有父母陪著好好玩、經常去戶外活動、快樂充滿內心的孩子,不需要到虛擬世界里尋找滿足感。

    讓家庭教育回歸真實自然的最好方式就是運動,尤其是戶外運動。運動能刺激人體產生多巴胺,也就是大腦里的“快樂因子”。無論是打球、爬山,還是隨便瘋跑,都會讓孩子快樂起來。接觸大自然既能給孩子的大腦發育提供各種豐富的刺激,還能保護孩子的視力。

    有些網絡游戲,吸引孩子的其實是社交功能。孩子沉溺其中,是因為需要社交。如果父母能在現實生活中滿足他的社交需求,他就不需要到虛擬的世界里去交朋友了。

    孩子接觸網絡游戲時,家長一定要當好“守門員”,要知道他在玩什么,為什么喜歡,這樣才能跟孩子搭上話,才能提供指導性的建議。很多家長痛恨孩子玩游戲,但當細問孩子在玩什么,家長卻答不上來,當然無從下手了。

    游戲不是洪水猛獸,完全禁止孩子玩游戲也不現實。家長應努力為孩子提供自然真實的成長環境,讓孩子體驗到豐富多樣的快樂。

    [作者單位:愛貝睿(北京)科技有限公司]

    《中國教育報》2019年07月11日第7版 

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