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    中職教育是職業教育中的“基礎教育”,其特殊性體現在哪里?

    補上認知短板 讀懂中職教育

    發布時間:2019-07-02 作者:程瑞存 邱開金 來源:中國教育報

    提高中等職業教育發展水平,是《國家職業教育改革實施方案》中提出的新任務、新要求。但中職教育發展水平的提高,仍然面臨著諸多問題和困難。其中,就認知層面看,從事中職教育的管理者和教育者中,有一些人并未真正理解中職教育,對于中職教師、中職學生、中職管理的差異性有哪些也不清楚。根本性問題不明白,正確教育理念的樹立和教育的實施,必然會出現這樣那樣的問題。因此,補上對中職教育認知的短板,真正讀懂中職教育非常必要。

        中職教育

    作為另一類型的教育,中職教育是普及高中階段教育和建設中國特色職業教育體系的重要基礎。從中職教育與普通教育的比較看,雖然同屬于教育,但又是不同類型的教育;從學校職業教育自身的體系看,中職教育是在高中教育階段進行的職業教育,也包括部分高中后職業培訓,它是職業教育中的“基礎教育”,是我國職業教育的主體,辦學層次和人才培養目標定位體現著專業導向、專業知識教育和職業技能教育并重的特點。

    依照教育部相關文件的規定,中職教育的根本使命是“培養與我國社會主義現代化建設要求相適應,德、智、體、美全面發展,具有綜合職業能力,在生產、服務一線工作的高素質勞動者和技能型人才”,其定位是在義務教育的基礎上培養大量技能型人才與高素質勞動者。

    由于中職教育與高中教育是平行的兩類教育,從目前國家的政策看,中職畢業學生至少有三種發展選項:一是創業或就業,這是中職教育的主流,也是社會人力分流的重要端口;二是可報考高職,繼續深造學習相關專業并完成大專學歷,《國家職業教育改革實施方案》強調要“擴大對初中畢業生實行中高職貫通培養的招生規模”,在政策的導向下,這類學生的比例會明顯增大;三是參加高考,回歸到普通高等教育中,進行人生職業的第二次選擇。

    中職教育后學生的三大分流,要求在中職教育過程中要兼顧并處理好服務于不同學生發展選擇的學習需要,教學計劃制定、課程設置、課時分配、教學組織等既要有基本科學文化素養、良好職業道德、專業知識和職業技能的針對性專業教育,也要有指導就業和創業的教育,還要有扎實的文化基礎知識和繼續學習能力培養的教育。如果深層次地剖析,針對中職教育對象職業的不確定性和發展訴求的多樣性,如何圍繞職業教育的軸心,處理好基礎教育課程和專業課程的關系、學生主動學習的自主選擇與教學組織形態的靈活定制等都是面臨的新問題,需要認真研究。

    中職教師

    作為另一類型教育的教師,中職教師的特殊性主要體現在兩個方面:一是職業素質具有“雙師”要求,即教師不僅學有專攻,還做有專長,知識教學能講得透,技能指導能點得明。二是教師角色具有多樣性,作為教師,在教學的全過程和與學生相處的全方位,做好楷模和示范;作為“朋友”,要將猶如父母而又勝于父母的愛,融入到對學生的關懷和愛護中,為學生的健康成長保駕護航。

    現實中,中職教師的自我認知有不足是普遍存在的。如一些基礎文化課教師認為“雙師素質”只是專業課教師的事,他們沒意識到職業導向的中職教育,其教育環境里職業文化的滲透無處不在,自覺轉變專業課程理念到課程專業理念是中職教師每個人、每門課程的事。對于專業課教師,備課不僅要進課本,還要進企業車間,理論教學的內容和實踐教學的組織形成一體。再如,中職教師要兼備學生父母之角色,這也是因教育對象的特殊性所決定的。中職學生是一個情感豐富精力旺盛、心理發展不完全成熟、職業性學習迷茫多、成長經歷中負面體驗較重、行為自控能力相對較弱的復雜群體,關心他們的日常生活、悉心指導他們正確處理人際關系、教他們學會理智地駕馭情感等,每位中職教師都要當責,當所有教師形成合力,中職教育質量提高才會更有保證。

        中職學生

    作為另一類型教育的學生,中職學生除了具有同齡段學生共有的心理和生理特點外,其不同更集中地體現在因職教而引發的角色轉換、專業認同、學習態度調整等方面。進入中職,學生首先面臨著角色轉換,即由中學生到中職生,跨類教育的轉型對于中職學生不是容易的事。受中學時期形成的角色定式影響,中職生的角色意味著許多新的挑戰,往往聚集著很復雜的情愫。尤其是在社會還存在對職業教育有偏見、認為中職是“低一等教育”的背景下,學生排斥中職生的角色更為突出。

    學習態度的調整是中職學生順利完成學業、成就自己職業夢想的關鍵。角色轉換不暢,專業認同就更難。剛走出中學校門的中職學生,對于職業、就業、創業的話語十分陌生,進入中職就要求他們要依專業作職業規劃,讓學生認同專業、學好專業、立志將來做好專業。

        中職管理

    針對中職學生的特殊性,中職教育及其管理需要加強針對性。在教育策略上,不能急于求成,角色轉換、專業認同和學習態度調整是一個漸進過程,要相信學生,同時也要留給學生足夠的時間。在教育路徑上,中職學生的許多問題與社會、與家庭息息相關,學校作為教育的主體,應該協調和整合社會教育、家庭教育力量,形成良性的互動合力機制。如以專業為依托,成立由專業教師、校企合作企業技術專家、學生家長代表參與的“助教聯盟”,適時把脈和疏導學生成長中出現的問題。在內部管理上,除了規范學校的各項管理外,特別需要加強班級建設,讓學生在班級中學習做人、學會與人相處、學會自我管理,通過良好的班風學風建設,推進學校的校風學風建設。

    中職教育是我國職業教育中校數最多、在校生人數最多的教育。據統計,2018年全國中職教育共有學校1.03萬所,占全國職校總數(1.17萬所)的88%,中職教育招生559.41萬人、在校生1551.84萬人,招生數和在校生數分別占高中階段教育的41.37%、39.47%。中職教育對國家的貢獻度顯然是巨大的,中職教育也是藏龍臥虎、人才濟濟的寶地,需要給予更多關注和支持。

    (作者程瑞存系浙江工貿技師學院院長,邱開金系浙江省溫州市鹿城區半甌學堂培訓學校教授)

    《中國教育報》2019年07月02日第8版 

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