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    暑期兒童安全事故高發 家長如何防范

    發布時間:2019-06-27 作者:本報記者 楊詠梅 來源:中國教育報

    隨著全國各地學校開始陸續進入暑假,安全事故防范這個沉重的話題再次引起人們的關注。漫長的暑假,一向是未成年人安全事故的高發時段,尤其是溺水,幾乎是學校年年教育、家長小心翼翼、孩子頻頻受害。旅游走失、陽臺窗戶墜亡、入室盜竊和搶劫等事故也防不勝防。6月21日晚,中國教育報家庭教育公開課“今天,我們怎樣做父母”第三期播出,邀請到中國人民公安大學教授、博導,中國青少年犯罪學會常務理事王大偉教授和北京華童兒安教育科技中心主任王曼芝兩位嘉賓做客直播間,探討暑期容易發生哪些安全事故,有哪些事故是由于家長監護不當造成的,防范事故發生有哪些基本原則。

    溺水傷亡事故為什么防不勝防?

    每逢暑假,最令家長和老師關切的就是防溺水,似乎辦法想盡、宣傳做絕,一些農村學校甚至不得不釆取老師看守池塘、河渠的死辦法。對此,王大偉說:“暑期兒童意外傷害第一位是溺水,特別是農村,是每個地方教育局感到最頭疼的問題。”分析原因,王大偉認為,一是平時修路施工挖了好多大坑,一下雨坑平了,孩子不知道,以為可以蹚過去,結果一走就掉進去了。再一個就是孩子喜歡水,平時有老師管,一放假沒人管了,天熱時常去游野泳,有的溺水事故還是跳水、潛水造成的。

    對于城市里的孩子,王大偉特別強調了音樂噴泉的風險:“有水有燈光的各種夜景,都可能意外觸電。曾經有三個小朋友在音樂噴泉里出事,一個死亡兩個昏迷,原因就是漏電。不光音樂噴泉有漏電的危險,很多飯館門口的水車、水閥也是帶電的,等座的時候小朋友都愛伸手玩水,也非常危險。”

    “所以我從來不讓我兒子玩噴泉的水。”王曼芝補充說,“噴泉不噴水的時候也不要走進去,曾經有個三四歲的小孩子經過的時候,噴泉突然啟動,水柱一下子就把孩子的肛門噴壞了。”

    王大偉認為,防范溺水事故,最主要的還是提高安全意識:“對環境越熟悉,人的防范意識越低。比如家門口的音樂噴泉、經常去的飯店,這時候人的防范意識幾乎為零。而不覺得有危險的地方,恰恰是最危險、最不能大意的。”

    王曼芝提到國外的兒童溺水事件并不多,主要原因是孩子們有很多免費游玩的地方,沒必要去游野泳就能滿足玩水的需要:“我們周圍給孩子們玩的安全而免費的地方太有限了,節假日我們想帶孩子出去玩,也只能去收費的游樂場,幾乎沒有免費的場所。”

    王大偉提到自己30多年前在英國留學時的觀察,呼吁城市建設要有“設計抵御意外傷害”的意識:“我在埃克塞特市念書,注意到他們的河岸有三個特殊的設計:河岸是自然的30度緩坡,很容易從水里爬上來,而我們的城市河流有好多河岸是垂直的90度,就是奧運冠軍下去也上不來;岸邊每100米有一個小鐵盒,救生圈折疊起來放在里面,拉出來的瞬間會自動充氣,非常方便救援;30度緩坡還配有鐵鏈,游泳的人感到疲勞時可以拉著鐵鏈抓著上岸。”王大偉認為這樣的設計并不需要多大的經費投入,卻可以大幅度減少意外傷害的發生。

    哪些安全事故與家長監護不當有關?

    “4歲兒子在媽媽身后幾米遠的水中掙扎了3分鐘后溺亡,媽媽在咫尺之遠埋頭看手機。”“爸爸下車后一直低頭玩手機,3歲的兒子自己打開車門跑向馬路對面,被疾馳而來的貨車卷入車輪。”“媽媽在房間玩手機時,1歲多的女嬰走進衛生間玩水,掉進水桶里溺亡。”“6歲女童不慎從手扶電梯失足墜下致死,母親當時手里撥弄著手機。”“2歲男孩站立不穩掉進滾燙的開水鍋中,當時他的爸媽正在玩手機。”……這些讓人觸目驚心的事故中,手機仿佛成為奪走一個個鮮活生命的殺手。

    一項由聯合國兒童基金會牽頭的兒童傷害事故調查發現,留守兒童遇溺的可能性是有父母照顧的兒童的12倍。而兒童安全聯盟的調查數據表明,在亞洲中低收入國家,遇溺身亡4歲以下的兒童八成是在離家不足20米的地方。

    王大偉特別提到去年暑假期間,北京的一對8歲的雙胞胎姐妹隨母親到青島海灘游玩時,母親坐在沙灘上邊看手機邊看孩子,雙胞胎在離她數米遠的地方和其他孩子一起挖沙子。“這個母親發了個朋友圈之后,再抬頭就發現孩子不見了。”所以他強烈呼吁家長帶孩子游玩的時候不要開手機,至少要把手機放兜里不拿出來,“帶孩子玩的這兩個小時能不能忍住手機依賴,能不能為了孩子克服一下?”

    除了靠家長個人的注意力保護孩子的安全,王大偉還建議全社會都要達成一些共識,形成社會支持系統:“比如早上7點半到8點半送孩子、下午4點半到5點半接孩子的時段里,不要給家長打電話。真有急事,也要等到過了這兩個時段。”王大偉舉例說,像北京這樣的大城市,車輛極多,電話一響,家長掏手機接電話一分心,孩子可能就有危險,要養成不打擾家長的好習慣。

    帶孩子的時候家長必須時刻緊盯著孩子嗎?“不是盯著孩子就不會出事,家長的注意力也有限,重要的是家長帶孩子出去至少要一對一,能有兩個大人帶一個孩子就更好。”王大偉就遇到一個獨自帶3個孩子來北京參加夏令營的媽媽,“孩子沒丟,手機丟了”。

    家中失火如何逃生?王大偉用“杯子定律”強調更重要的是防范而不是逃生。他把桌上的杯子移到桌邊,打比方說:“我們輕輕一碰這杯水,杯子就會掉到地上摔碎,這個過程只有一秒鐘。兒童安全教育的重點不要放在這一秒鐘里能做點什么,重點應該是把杯子從桌邊拿回來放到安全的地方。”能怎么辦呢?比如,“火災逃生彎腰捂嘴往出逃,但是一逃就知道很難逃出去,怎么辦?”

    王大偉坦誠地說,他參加了一次消防演練,有大毛巾,有一大瓶水可以淋濕毛巾,“但眼睛被煙氣刺激得根本睜不開,一下子顛覆了我教了30年的逃生建議”。常年從事一線安全教育工作的王曼芝非常認同安全教育的關鍵是防范,“比如不讓孩子玩火,學齡前孩子不讓進廚房,大一些的孩子要教會他如何用刀、用火”。

    孩子應該具備哪些自護自救知識?

    5月31日,常州一個13歲男孩獨自在家時客廳失火,男孩立刻躲進衛生間,把門關上,打開淋浴,對準門縫噴水,然后從衛生間窗戶往樓下扔東西,呼救求助。網友紛紛點贊這孩子“教科書般的緊急自救”。

    暑期很多孩子會獨自在家,王大偉提及中午12點時治安和刑事案件會有小幅上揚,“有時候整幢大樓一個大人都沒有,犯罪分子往往會趁機入室搶劫盜竊,甚至升級為人身傷害。其中60%的作案者是熟人,所以父母要告訴孩子誰敲門都不應答”。

    王曼芝認為,孩子3歲以后,隨著活動范圍的增大,除了居家環境,其他安全事故發生的概率也會增大,“所以孩子放暑假獨自在家,我們會教他們掌握王大偉總結的十大技能,比如平安童謠‘一人在家放暑假,生人敲門不應答,問路送奶查電表,決不開門我當家’”。

    王大偉補充說,如果有人敲門,第一要欺騙,比如說“我爸待會兒就回來了”;第二要逃跑,如果門被打開,就推開來人往外跑,跑到樓道就安全了;第三是不看,教孩子說“叔叔我剛才沒有看你的臉”。“看臉容易導致危險升級,如果是熟人綁架,很多情況下會撕票。”

    暑期也是孩子容易受到性侵害的時段。王曼芝給家有女孩的父母建議說,夏天不要穿太少,裙子不要太短,要有自我保護的意識。上幼兒園之前,男孩女孩都應該學會小熊操:“小熊小熊好寶寶,背心褲衩都穿好,里面不許別人摸,男孩女孩都要知道。”簡單的幾句童謠,就能幫孩子記住基本的知識點。

    一旦發生溺水,在專業救援人士到來之前,家長應該怎么辦?王曼芝說:“要抓住4分鐘的黃金搶救時間,讓孩子側躺,清理嘴里的泥沙。但有些家長的錯誤做法,反而延誤了最佳搶救時機。”王曼芝指出老百姓常用的倒掛孩子和掐人中這兩個方法都不可取,反而會對孩子造成新的傷害。

    王大偉說自己有鎖門以后又回去檢查水、電、煤氣的“強迫癥”,還真的防止了兩次失火的發生。他幽默地說:“強迫癥是個好習慣,安全無小事,安防、技防都比不上心防。”他提醒家長從幼兒園把孩子接回來以后,可以讓孩子在前面走,家長在后面跟著,走幾趟就認識回家的路了。“熟悉回家的路,在生活中教安全意識,比學習逃生技能重要。”

    說到男孩女孩面臨的不同風險,王大偉強調男孩在學前年齡段被傷害的危險大于女孩,男孩最大的危險是走失、是被拐賣。“女孩聽話,是小棉襖,男孩是小野馬,尤其必須一對一看護。”所以,王大偉要求學齡前兒童“只要在公共場所就一定要拉住大人的手”。

    《中國教育報》2019年06月27日第9版 

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