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    中職課堂教學診改如何克服“難”和“累”

    發布時間:2019-06-25 作者:李玉明 來源:中國教育報

    從課堂入手是推動中職教學診斷與改進工作的有效方式之一,但開展課堂教學診改是一個過程,而且這個過程是環環相扣、有一定難度的行動研究。因此,“難”與“累”可以說是課堂教學診改的普遍特征,“難”主要體現在觀念與設計層面,“累”主要體現在專業與技術層面。結合日常實踐筆者以為,可以從以下幾方面入手推進中職課堂教學診改。

    馬上行動。推進課堂教學診改,沒有靈丹妙藥,立馬行動、趕快“做”,是最好的解決辦法。一個完整的課堂教學診改過程包括準備階段、實施階段、總結階段,三個階段環環相扣、層層遞進、各有作用。隨著總結階段的完成,又意味著新一輪診改的開始,如此往復、堅持下去,就會達到理想的課堂教學診改目標,建立良性的人才培養質量保證體系。

    深入進去。深入開展課堂教學診改需要診改技術支持。一是觀察問題要聚焦。診改工具要聚焦課堂教學診改中的關鍵問題,不一定面面俱到,因為隨著教研活動進一步深入,問題會不斷得到解決,這也是課堂教學診改的魅力所在。二是觀察點要有針對性。觀察點要與研究的問題直接聯系,反映問題的主要矛盾,要充分考慮觀察對象,不能一刀切。三是觀察點的內涵要界定清楚。選擇完觀察點,接下來要對觀察點進行界定,這項工作有一定的難度,需要有一定的教育教學理論作為支撐。四是診改要設立底線。涉及體現課堂教學是否規范與科學的常規性觀察,要同等對待、從嚴要求,如體現學科素養的觀察,包括學科或專業術語是否準確規范、是否掌握了學科課程標準或專業人才培養方案、是否全面了解學科核心素養或專業發展動態等,關涉教師是否勝任教學工作,要一視同仁。

    跳出來看。促進教師專業發展是課堂教學診改的直接動因,因此設計課堂教學診改要考慮一所學校對教師專業發展的總體要求,把促進教師的專業成長同日常的課堂教學觀察緊密結合起來。所以,從“教師”診斷視角看,課堂教學觀察能為落實學校教師專業發展規劃提供第一手的資料,因為促進教師發展的措施與對策的有效性,最終都要在課堂上體現出來,聚焦課堂開展課堂教學診斷,能夠起到“以點看面”的效果。

    重視證據。設計課堂觀察工具要以收集有效數據為原則,讓數據“說話”,提高數據分析的準確性和針對性是課堂教學診改的重點和難點。所謂重點是指沒有數據支撐沒有說服力的,也無法為教師改進提供依據;所謂難點是指課堂教學是復雜的,一節課呈現的信息量是巨大的,到底選擇記錄哪些數據是難點。由于課堂教學情境是現場生成的,雖然有預設的成分,但是也有意外的成分,因此觀察工具要既能記錄到課前“預設”情景,也能記錄到課堂現場生成的“意外”情境,既要預定也要適當“留白”。

    不迷信數據。過度依賴數據會迷失診改意義,比如有的學校用學生的“抬頭率”作為課堂教學效果好壞的指標,“抬頭率”高,說明教師教學效果好,學生都在認真聽;反之說明教學效果不好,理由是學生都“睡著了”,教師講得肯定不好。用“抬頭率”作為衡量一節課好與不好的指標,有合理的一面,也有不合理的一面。從教學管理角度看,有合理的一面,因為這個指標非常好采集,只要教室有攝像設備就可以辦到,省時省力。從促進教師發展角度看,也有不合理的一面,因為課堂教學是復雜的,包括教師教的因素也有學生學的因素,還有可能涉及學校辦學條件因素,單憑“抬頭率”來評價教師教學的好壞缺乏說服力。

    行動研究。在課堂教學診改的準備階段,基于學校辦學愿景,建立課堂教學的目標鏈和標準鏈;在實施階段,聚焦課堂教學實踐,診改已有教科研成果;在總結階段,總結歸納診改結果,鞏固發展教研成果。整個診改過程的實質是組織教師開展校本行動研究,可供選擇的課堂教學診改的問題也是多樣和有限的統一體。所謂“多樣”,是因為影響中職課堂教學效果的問題是多方面的,這種“多樣性”導致課堂教學診改選題空間存在廣泛性;所謂“有限”,是因為可以診改的“問題”是有限的,因為影響中職課堂教學質量的問題大多在“遠離課堂的地方生長著”。開展行動研究的形式與方法也是多樣態的,只要能體現學校的自主性,能聚焦課堂教學效果的提升,任何一種行動研究的方式和方法都可以探索和實踐。

    (作者系吉林省延邊州教育學院職教部主任)

    《中國教育報》2019年06月25日第11版 

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