• <menu id="kiemg"><strong id="kiemg"></strong></menu>
  • <optgroup id="kiemg"></optgroup>
  • <nav id="kiemg"><code id="kiemg"></code></nav>
    <nav id="kiemg"><code id="kiemg"></code></nav>
    <xmp id="kiemg">
    <xmp id="kiemg"><nav id="kiemg"></nav>
  • <nav id="kiemg"><code id="kiemg"></code></nav>
    首頁>檢索頁>當前

    中職課堂教學診改如何克服“難”和“累”

    發布時間:2019-06-25 作者:李玉明 來源:中國教育報

    從課堂入手是推動中職教學診斷與改進工作的有效方式之一,但開展課堂教學診改是一個過程,而且這個過程是環環相扣、有一定難度的行動研究。因此,“難”與“累”可以說是課堂教學診改的普遍特征,“難”主要體現在觀念與設計層面,“累”主要體現在專業與技術層面。結合日常實踐筆者以為,可以從以下幾方面入手推進中職課堂教學診改。

    馬上行動。推進課堂教學診改,沒有靈丹妙藥,立馬行動、趕快“做”,是最好的解決辦法。一個完整的課堂教學診改過程包括準備階段、實施階段、總結階段,三個階段環環相扣、層層遞進、各有作用。隨著總結階段的完成,又意味著新一輪診改的開始,如此往復、堅持下去,就會達到理想的課堂教學診改目標,建立良性的人才培養質量保證體系。

    深入進去。深入開展課堂教學診改需要診改技術支持。一是觀察問題要聚焦。診改工具要聚焦課堂教學診改中的關鍵問題,不一定面面俱到,因為隨著教研活動進一步深入,問題會不斷得到解決,這也是課堂教學診改的魅力所在。二是觀察點要有針對性。觀察點要與研究的問題直接聯系,反映問題的主要矛盾,要充分考慮觀察對象,不能一刀切。三是觀察點的內涵要界定清楚。選擇完觀察點,接下來要對觀察點進行界定,這項工作有一定的難度,需要有一定的教育教學理論作為支撐。四是診改要設立底線。涉及體現課堂教學是否規范與科學的常規性觀察,要同等對待、從嚴要求,如體現學科素養的觀察,包括學科或專業術語是否準確規范、是否掌握了學科課程標準或專業人才培養方案、是否全面了解學科核心素養或專業發展動態等,關涉教師是否勝任教學工作,要一視同仁。

    跳出來看。促進教師專業發展是課堂教學診改的直接動因,因此設計課堂教學診改要考慮一所學校對教師專業發展的總體要求,把促進教師的專業成長同日常的課堂教學觀察緊密結合起來。所以,從“教師”診斷視角看,課堂教學觀察能為落實學校教師專業發展規劃提供第一手的資料,因為促進教師發展的措施與對策的有效性,最終都要在課堂上體現出來,聚焦課堂開展課堂教學診斷,能夠起到“以點看面”的效果。

    重視證據。設計課堂觀察工具要以收集有效數據為原則,讓數據“說話”,提高數據分析的準確性和針對性是課堂教學診改的重點和難點。所謂重點是指沒有數據支撐沒有說服力的,也無法為教師改進提供依據;所謂難點是指課堂教學是復雜的,一節課呈現的信息量是巨大的,到底選擇記錄哪些數據是難點。由于課堂教學情境是現場生成的,雖然有預設的成分,但是也有意外的成分,因此觀察工具要既能記錄到課前“預設”情景,也能記錄到課堂現場生成的“意外”情境,既要預定也要適當“留白”。

    不迷信數據。過度依賴數據會迷失診改意義,比如有的學校用學生的“抬頭率”作為課堂教學效果好壞的指標,“抬頭率”高,說明教師教學效果好,學生都在認真聽;反之說明教學效果不好,理由是學生都“睡著了”,教師講得肯定不好。用“抬頭率”作為衡量一節課好與不好的指標,有合理的一面,也有不合理的一面。從教學管理角度看,有合理的一面,因為這個指標非常好采集,只要教室有攝像設備就可以辦到,省時省力。從促進教師發展角度看,也有不合理的一面,因為課堂教學是復雜的,包括教師教的因素也有學生學的因素,還有可能涉及學校辦學條件因素,單憑“抬頭率”來評價教師教學的好壞缺乏說服力。

    行動研究。在課堂教學診改的準備階段,基于學校辦學愿景,建立課堂教學的目標鏈和標準鏈;在實施階段,聚焦課堂教學實踐,診改已有教科研成果;在總結階段,總結歸納診改結果,鞏固發展教研成果。整個診改過程的實質是組織教師開展校本行動研究,可供選擇的課堂教學診改的問題也是多樣和有限的統一體。所謂“多樣”,是因為影響中職課堂教學效果的問題是多方面的,這種“多樣性”導致課堂教學診改選題空間存在廣泛性;所謂“有限”,是因為可以診改的“問題”是有限的,因為影響中職課堂教學質量的問題大多在“遠離課堂的地方生長著”。開展行動研究的形式與方法也是多樣態的,只要能體現學校的自主性,能聚焦課堂教學效果的提升,任何一種行動研究的方式和方法都可以探索和實踐。

    (作者系吉林省延邊州教育學院職教部主任)

    《中國教育報》2019年06月25日第11版 

    0 0 0 0
    分享到:0

    相關閱讀

    最新發布
    熱門標簽
    點擊排行
    熱點推薦

    工信部備案號:京ICP備05071141號

    互聯網新聞信息服務許可證 10120170024

    中國教育新聞網版權所有,未經書面授權禁止下載使用

    Copyright@2000-2019 www.qqyui.com All Rights Reserved.

    京公網安備 11010802025840號

    599彩票599彩票平台599彩票主页599彩票网站599彩票官网599彩票娱乐599彩票开户599彩票注册599彩票是真的吗599彩票登入599彩票快三599彩票时时彩599彩票手机app下载599彩票开奖 www.08588s.com | www.3939066.com | www.77890c.com | www.290282.com | www.9902006.com | www.57155n.com | www.330895.com | www.xpjvip.top | www.7508e.com | www.178761.com | www.jd8788.com | www.09866.com | www.106326.com | www.09w.cm | www.48438t.com | www.73166c.com | www.911000l.com | www.371931.com | www.09s.cm | www.7384eee.com | www.32123b.com | www.80078g.com | www.586840.com | www.73055u.com | www.ctxcp18.com | www.75850.cc | www.88850w19.com | www.41518w.com | www.rx033.com | www.808732.com | www.pj108108.com | www.2061.com | www.22290o.com | www.2376.com | www.hc3656.com | www.9hjdc.com | www.54968f.com | www.76665359.com | www.97655d.com | www.tz607.com | www.545568.com | www.yinhecc88.com | www.926013.com | www.7605f.com | www.xjlhly.com | www.084wy.com | www.59199j.com | www.9356g.com | www.88899kk.com | www.77210c.com | www.pjcp789.com | www.guocai667.com | www.k3ha.com | www.98528i.com | www.tyccp16.com | www.320477.com | www.4912h.com | www.357803.com | www.ks8835.com | www.366019.com | www.30149999.com | www.108095.com | www.889337.com | www.66376b.com | www.20180027.com | www.60123t.com | www.3775j.com | www.26299k.com | www.522553.com | www.7782w.com | www.hg9665.vip | www.2875n.com | www.7384bbb.com | www.3136552.com | www.655488.com | www.16789x.com | www.508477.com | www.yyc911.com | www.81233n.com | www.pjtianjin.com | www.32123q.com | www.ecw02.com | www.178012.com | www.4323f.com | www.s773776.com | www.377507.com | www.vnsr2018s.com | www.50051b.com | www.998hghg.com | www.699by.com | www.259388.com | www.yh2200.cc | www.346211.com | www.kj9666.com | www.cll168.com | www.1556jg.com | www.js889t.com | www.206882.com | www.87680128.com | www.w593.com | www.846631.com | www.tyc7779.com | www.1368f.cc | www.wcp686.com | www.tcp03.com | www.34788y.com | www.26004.com | www.live0033.com | www.9889hc.com | www.64224.com | www.kj970.cc | www.2632s.com | www.911710.com | www.5966536.com | www.29277g.com | www.2773.com | www.1484d.com | www.5091x.com | www.33648c.com | www.92240000.com | www.2388cai.com | www.44368.com | www.qq6969.com | www.7515aa.com | www.952856.com | www.540455.com | www.wlb55.com | www.bxcp3333.com | www.11529.comm | www.zb616.com | www.88266s.com | www.8610.vip | www.99840d.com | www.112899.com | www.xinyc5.com | www.7249.com | www.vnsr2018p.com | www.983jc.com | www.725898.com | www.56726i.com | www.18835207234.com | www.66652g.com | www.99489.com | www.2211sun.com | www.00ttz.com | www.444070.com | www.2796s.com | www.qifa144.com | www.073wy.com | www.526031.com | www.5804j.com | www.ss2665.com | www.fl62.com | www.83033b.com | www.kj55.com | www.ab6555.com | www.75878ee.com | www.53900f.com | www.606694.com | www.cpsj07.com | www.33cp163.com | www.hjin9.com | www.112559.com | www.xz1006.com | www.86068.com | www.7070702.com | www.8039h.com | www.195876.com | www.343335.com | www.300js.net | www.long8557.com | www.4289s.com | www.68689k.com | www.579020.com | www.8980.com | www.j15aa.com | www.long8350.com | www.233235.com | www.29277z.com | www.235399.com | www.kj6511.com | www.84881y.com | www.377408.com | www.1138b.net | www.500yf.com | www.83033h.com | www.809699.com | www.83055.cn | www.0024034.com | www.tz609.com | www.4008c.com | www.88ttz.com | www.80075q.com | www.98528f.com | www.715777a.com | www.0886pj.com | www.abdwc56.com | www.zlh006.com | www.883399y.com | www.48488h.com | www.27989.cc | www.29277q.com | www.369477.com | www.98528f.com | www.319222.com | www.98777e.com | www.rr3844.com | www.6199zz.com | www.f7383.com | www.18615727891.com | www.lczg0.com | www.022f.cc | www.55220.com | www.89894n.com | www.010956.com | www.558402.com | www.895030.com | www.tm003.net | www.cp8789.com | www.2371u.com | www.50524.com | www.55917gg.com | www.hlg61.com | www.911000e.com | www.3678ooo.com | www.519073.com | www.k3ah.com | www.long8526.com | www.tyc422.com | www.zd222.net | www.bwin740.com | www.zb5111.com | www.feicai0393.com | www.3050kk.com | www.70669b.com | www.v678929.com | www.13088359785.com | www.646969bb.com | www.d34348.com | www.c559222.com | www.680998.com | www.k3cn.net | www.1484rr.com | www.8388yd.com | www.yh2221.com | www.9288.us | www.780102.com | www.399391.com | www.88839u.com | www.97098111.com | www.87875156.com | www.246566.com | www.92838ff.com | www.8666a.com | www.8847a.com | www.tyccp97.com | www.001792.com | www.happy866.com | www.450370.com | www.2290.com | www.861150.com | www.442428.com | www.126309.com | www.71233l.com | www.2109f.com | www.j3366.com | www.83356d.com | www.5565231.com | www.xpj99895.com | www.9830cc.com | www.89ms3122u.com | www.6666hd.com | www.602327.com | www.83993p.com | www.08588s.com | www.c760.net | www.7084pj.com | www.56667ss.com | www.38390n.com | www.21511d.com | www.39053.com | www.268177.com | www.66653f.com | www.c5908.com | www.38200o.com | www.pjcp555.com | www.11223v.com | www.dzjcp888.com | www.521787.com | www.66653k.com | www.ji224.com | www.3050hh.com | www.a33958.com | www.134588.com | www.980205.com | www.126509.com | www.9155a.com | www.84898c.com | www.04866648.com | www.152588.com | www.636309.com | www.50052n.com | www.y186b.com | www.81619.com | www.6120ff.com | www.0923456.com | www.71233y.com | www.ascp2.com | www.1j189.com | www.vn888678.cc | www.33351.com | www.54968f.com | www.hx6600.com | www.o85844.com | www.3775779.com | www.013789.com | www.39500l.com | www.749417.com | www.80800n.com | www.755696.com | www.150882.com | www.mcw4.com | www.12741i.com | www.153240.com | www.206991.com | www.hm6622.com | www.063022.com | www.3494.com | www.83993x.com | www.15320857788.com | www.43436v.com | www.tcp969.com | www.66376p.com | www.a773776.com | www.934533.com | www.412228.com | www.hw82.com | www.yh1175.com | www.411338.com | www.36788r.com | www.88881yh.com | www.2041vv.com | www.287926.com | www.09959ss.com | www.77637c.com | www.766464.com | www.918jo.com | www.19019b.com | www.64111.com | www.8816y.com | www.long8303.com | www.849749.com | www.8667u.com | www.qq3014.com | www.9343.com | www.5091h.com | www.s2206.com | www.123123.com | www.3416e.com | www.i2084.com | www.959552.com | www.288hc.com | www.zr440.com | www.640505.com | www.48488e.com | www.bb9411.com | www.130881.com | www.3480111.com | www.34445c.com | www.77803w.com | www.449890.com | www.933509.com | www.cai001.vip | www.55917kk.com | www.192762.com | www.ay147.com | www.222245.com | www.077wy.com | www.dhbet11.com | www.302210.com | www.993299.com | www.91ms6683122g.com | www.6364j.com | www.yonghui4.com | www.250756.com | www.35252m.com | www.9848.cc | www.636by.com | www.53009f.com | www.51515u.com | www.23699l.com | www.550174.com | www.3487222.com | www.78188.com | www.jd7988.com | www.x-p-j-9-8.zb6288.com | www.7793c.com | www.108www.com | www.99788f.com | www.bet338365.com | www.199207.com | www.longbet88.com | www.577983.com | www.56655l.com | www.881809.com | www.0096yy.com | www.9995266.com | www.pj0099.com | www.1188kk.com | www.11331277.com | www.440678.com | www.9081gg.com | www.9343.com | www.2714943196.com | www.551432.com | www.hg0555g.com | www.9926.cc | www.15973652532.com | www.0336.com | www.1010140.com | www.675266.com | www.99991yh.com | www.550414.com | www.long898.com | www.108097.com | www.x33309.com | www.50054l.com | www.62383j.com | www.50054x.com | www.7508x.com | www.88cmc.com | www.097779cb.com | www.a686.com | www.509433.com | www.wlc69.com | www.50051n.com | www.ecw09.com | www.930xj.com | www.3566345.com | www.1123ss.com | www.586960.com | www.a88790.com | www.60108o.com | www.84881y.com | www.6033.com | www.08119d.com | www.98528f.com | www.j7758.com | www.50026r.com | www.hhjt4400.com | www.09323q.com | www.703270.com | www.00853vnsr.com | www.50051s.com | www.03369g.com | www.17688907238.com | www.507932.com | www.1ttn.com | www.hx6693.com | www.809285.com | www.vni666.com | www.8816z.com | www.555233.com | www.7344999.com | www.41518h.com | www.286888.com | www.lebet998.com | www.66332s.com | www.771494.com | www.565522j.com | www.84499h.com | www.240699.com | www.3421ss.com | www.76520q.com | www.788807.com | www.77207720.com | www.6832i.com | www.zz71.com | www.test888.com | www.c6093.com | www.449810.com | www.9676922.com | www.73055v.com | www.80065w.com | www.07075156.com | www.wy1368.com | www.910xj.com | www.630675.com | www.79889n.com | www.13799279669.com | www.84499o.com | www.111167911.vip | www.7050h.com | www.071wy.com | www.505504.com | www.190306.com | www.zb56789.com | www.66530.cc | www.653182.com | www.3018eee.com | www.44889n.com | www.08588h.com | www.702309.com | www.ecw03.com | www.dh973.com | www.11774.cc | www.550419.com | www.582466.com | www.long8353.com | www.c229.vip | www.60108t.com | www.13136e.com | www.38390v.com | www.c559444.cc | www.5086o.com | www.401270.com | www.953334.com | www.072133.com | www.21819b.com | www.99677z.com | www.689253.com | www.2371q.com | www.0022co.com | www.jinsha753.com | www.77114n.com | www.yc7701.com | www.660859.com | www.1484vip6.com | www.oo4886.com | www.3765z.com | www.88266t.com | www.550417.com | www.166555.com | www.8898fff.com | www.lfa623.com | www.pj14vip.com | www.31330.cc | www.78700d.com | www.tcp969.com | www.781234.com | www.4346kj.com | www.hgx21088.com | www.7415u.com | www.1035i.com | www.61655l.com | www.669634.com | www.4910.com | www.crc132.com | www.13789r.com | www.99995yh.com | www.kkkk0010.com | www.917gc.com | www.33112p.com | www.325826.com | www.927816.com | www.dc1105.com | www.56726c.com | www.041234h.com | www.887766yh.com | www.17723621868.com | www.igcp9.com | www.9711c.com | www.33598c.com | www.175904.com | www.610875.com | www.922333.com | www.546611.com | www.09874c.com | www.s380000.com | www.11599.com | www.tz603.com | www.hqcp.co | www.883399j.com | www.8124c.com | www.577455.com | www.33czt.com | www.3478z.cc | www.cll168.com | www.50989j.com | www.33997u.com | www.68689k.com | www.163734.com | www.332950.com | www.rcw321.com | www.763236.com | www.843933.com | www.933661.com | www.497228.com | www.35tk.com | www.468661a.com | www.008.com | www.zgj0.com | www.996099.com | www.812777.com | www.54968f.com | www.241678.com | www.963063.com | www.927670.com | www.849077.com | www.716726.com | www.608986.com | www.529411.com | www.346511.com | www.178736.com | www.076591.com | www.68682w.com | www.39957d.com | www.78700d.com | www.26878w.com | www.9928aa.com | www.sxyl3.com | www.jd7988.com | www.1008196.com | www.563026.com | www.444555yh.com | www.66t88.com | www.r99831.com | www.889345.com | www.09129.app | www.bm1244.vip | www.68678.com | www.812566.com | www.771049.com | www.345839.com | www.84499l.com | www.68682j.com | www.022zj.cc | www.6623s.com | www.yh0222.cc | www.4515003.com | www.40fhyl.com | www.37879000.com | www.1497.com | www.735037.com | www.206991.com | www.83033n.com | www.074wy.com | www.37377v.com | www.hg2622.com | www.1489c.com | www.799756.com | www.92209.com | www.567388.com | www.50052r.com | www.000ac.com | www.jinyanran0416.com | www.yt307.com | www.88850yy.com | www.66445144.com | www.808390.com | www.87668j.com | www.5091h.com | www.jd733.com | www.tyccp14.com | www.vnsr103.vip | www.222298.com | www.275780.com | www.39957b.com | www.7885101.com | www.cq809.com | www.530202.com | www.8994.com | www.330197.com | www.18593.com | www.hyl237.com | www.sbd1166.net | www.72769900.com | www.rcw8877.com | www.77996c.com | www.000ac.com | www.dwj004.com | www.7894s.com | www.2800kjz.com | www.136025.com | www.255ak.com | www.y773776.com | www.a3a4vip.com | www.727959.com | www.78949s.com | www.c134.vip | www.883084.com | www.27772.com | www.rcw8811.com | www.5095m.com | www.feicai0349.com | www.0024034.com | www.978217.com | www.33997p.com | www.1593o.com | www.22296bh.com | www.0363.com | www.41518m.com | www.hyl242.com | www.4923u.com | www.995773.com | www.80767s.com | www.3050oo.com | www.ecw06.com | www.643552.com | www.1035o.com | www.7454cc.com | www.0062337.com | www.101698.com | www.f056f.com | www.yh123r.com | www.30949.com | www.36788b.com | www.hg882k.com | www.15248383.com | www.005845.com | www.37377t.com | www.2000cc.cc | www.560121.com | www.lczg8.com | www.6668888.tv | www.978913.com | www.3005w.com | www.ky4404.com | www.13156.com | www.36787d.com | www.9844tt.com | www.jc782.com | www.77114z.com | www.97799e.com | www.3222.cc | www.66653x.com | www.lehu906.com | www.j4040.com | www.52072c.com | www.lehu734.com | www.zx666.com | www.33588m.com | www.pj9218.com | www.80567.com | www.6364k.com | www.235757.com | www.876928.com | www.hcjt5.com | www.4880z.com | www.305644.com | www.shalysha333.com | www.65858g.com | www.33588c.com | www.p6002.com | www.478377.com | www.7dzh.com | www.399326.com | www.050236.com | www.56655o.com | www.5651.com | www.9889hc.com | www.88850w13.com | www.178153.com | www.49198f.com | www.97089.cc | www.699by.com | www.55917ll.com | www.053552.com | www.h1141.com | www.939884.com | www.xh8040.com | www.395549.com | www.60108w.com | www.xsj138.com | www.477680.com | www.hh2626.com | www.42298.com | www.hc2988.com | www.2041y.com | www.36166x.com | www.wap.85770h.com | www.202883.com | www.h88953.com | www.xinyc3.com | www.amwnsrgbt.vip | www.4465.cc | www.266ak.com | www.27363z.com | www.50080z.com | www.toucai55.com | www.35918x.com | www.6939o.com | www.150962.com | www.j1458.com | www.355183.com | www.999.1292c.com | www.589879.com | www.9611p.com | www.735037.com | www.16181b.com | www.846662.com | www.99178d.com | www.862455.com | www.348heilongjiang.com | www.980158.com | www.1389bb.com | www.935026.com | www.99700r.com | www.960923.com | www.xq331249589.com | www.976909.com | www.xpj70019.com | www.709720.com | www.hbcp33.com | www.501433.com | www.qifa518.com | www.180209.com | www.jinshavip111.com | www.80075q.com | www.883544.com | www.71399j.com | www.3018ttt.com | www.3126v.com | www.1433159.com | www.cb2388.com | www.tk113.com | www.38200t.com | www.616097.com | www.9558910.com | www.80075y.com | www.88899cc.com | www.32123j.com | www.373333f.com | www.sun9100.com | www.550483.com | www.hbcp3333.com | www.129985.com | www.48586.com | www.11025.cc | www.27778h.com | www.18835513277.com | www.774255.com | www.443127.com | www.36788i.com | www.7508d.com | www.2200yy.com | www.843933.com | www.7477999.com | www.21202i.com | www.37570i.com | www.5180858.com | www.799486.com | www.8808zy.com | www.52303c.com | www.4694o.com | www.vn98807.com | www.351587.com | www.w627777.com | www.can80.com | www.329331.com | www.bb3014.com | www.80065n.com | www.hjc36.vip | www.99178d.com | www.81678a.com | www.7508d.com | www.d88918.cc | www.330192.com | www.38681a.com | www.xj038.com | www.554363.com | www.www68666c.com | www.zcwf3.com | www.755740.com | www.85964c.com | www.dfyk3.com | www.616330.com | www.www68666o.com | www.18933008.com | www.411515.com | www.98777f.com | www.73055c.com | www.87668g.com | www.95011g.com | www.bm1100.cc | www.21202q.com | www.668299.com | www.8466333.com | www.1035i.com | www.715699.com | www.89777w.com | www.s3285.net | www.103658.com | www.700161.com | www.97077r.com | www.50048.com | www.898134.com | www.8850w8.com | www.99029y.com | www.196806.com | www.8649966.com | www.y2665.com | www.3479z.com | www.581237.com | www.35835808.com | www.zbdl38.com | www.cll168.com | www.606674.com | www.1hjdc.com | www.ddc899.com | www.1035s.com | www.464689.com | www.556tk.com | www.vip6855.com | www.fcyl7.com | www.095069.com | www.520383.com | www.19019n.com | www.77gg58.vip | www.33588v.com | www.926280.com | www.98777o.com | www.445566yh.com | www.091wy.com | www.178753.com | www.07004a.com | www.81866d.com | www.0096yy.com | www.05500w.com | www.yc7701.com | www.74011.com | www.y52266.com | www.tian19890430.com | www.50051s.com | www.528335.com | www.375375g.com | www.rd7766.com | www.1010190.com | www.022sc.cc | www.81233k.com | www.guocai667.com | www.37570r.com | www.j47479.com | www.37377x.com | www.7782v.com | www.172346.com | www.966082.com | www.9846j.com | www.19019h.com | www.348xianggang.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.68682h.com | www.701496.com | www.bgy555.net | www.4923l.com | www.lbbet44.com | www.caipiao33r.com | www.5854a.cc | www.68568s.com | www.702309.com | www.1881838.com | www.edb100.com | www.912393.com | www.16789t.com | www.tang777.com | www.77803s.com | www.309939.com | www.914077.com | www.cp163.net | www.35166.com | www.mm23488.com | www.22557z.com | www.143548.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.66332b.com | www.95222w.com | www.560259.com | www.730740.com | www.ks3336.com | www.97711y.com | www.0698899.com | www.777c788.com | www.caipiao33s.com | www.qm71.com | www.8667g.com | www.55228h.com | www.luck886.com | www.815870.com | www.ac55.com | www.46651.com | www.98777n.com | www.99383.com | www.370812.com | www.dw189.com | www.ke88888888.com | www.33303j.com | www.3552i.com | www.43131i.com | www.158606.com | www.495568.com | www.760250.com | www.366000.com | www.2371e.com | www.50aaa.net | www.0800zz.com | www.aq49.com | www.4912k.com | www.ks8825.com | www.heji005.com | www.dd7868.com | www.00296767.com | www.77139c.com | www.217778.com | www.hg2888.com | www.al9888.com | www.022sh.cc | www.bxcp3.com | www.658zf.com | www.3479aa.com | www.126ll.com | www.2875t.com | www.1368u.cc | www.5666hc.com | www.089wy.com | www.qml7.com | www.qmkl1.com | www.ya278.com | www.sygj5.com | www.w935.com | www.ztc7.com | www.gocp3.com | www.108ak.com | www.011ac.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.qucw9.com | www.1497t.com | www.1593a.com | www.jd8588.com | www.66vs88.com | www.hg515444.com | www.pjcp678.com | www.50026h.com | www.97655m.com | www.81233f.com | www.29699.com | www.11fzc.com | www.bb2355.com | www.1227625137.com | www.25288m.com | www.lehu516.com | www.le888i.com | www.88119.com | www.97098222.com | www.697422.com | www.2061.com | www.586960.com | www.106607.com | www.87668h.com | www.7777y.cc | www.cccc0087.com | www.ch87654321.com | www.16181p.com | www.wxc9988.com | www.a6a7.vip | www.d49889.com | www.666672.com | www.621764.com | www.80767w.com | www.26878p.com | www.cccc0087.com | www.8414w.com | www.tyc198.com | www.cai51.net | www.hnu533.net | www.938849.com | www.192733.com | www.16878y.com | www.1555hc.com | www.vns0184.com | www.lzyq28.com | www.88993u.com | www.cpsj07.com | www.8877tm.com | www.314005.com | www.77801q.com | www.c1636.com | www.zb5333.com | www.901366.com | www.amyhylc88.net | www.684050.com |