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    兒童友好是家校協同的根本原則

    發布時間:2019-06-13 作者:孫云曉 來源:中國教育報

    兒童友好,是聯合國在1996年倡導建立兒童友好城市的一個概念,據說現在世界上有500多個城市獲得了兒童友好城市的稱號,遺憾的是中國到目前為止仍是零。做到兒童友好,尊重兒童的權利,不是一個可有可無的選擇,而是不能改變的法律原則。

    現在有多少孩子出了校門就走進補習班的門,有多少家長接孩子放學就把孩子的書包接過來,這都不是兒童友好。每一個成人都需要問問自己:我是一個兒童友好的父母嗎?我是一個兒童友好的老師嗎?我是一個兒童友好的公務員嗎?

    家校協同共育要真正有利于兒童成長,就要講科學,要回歸生活,要把兒童的需要放在很重要的位置,兒童友好應成為家校協同的根本原則。

    兒童友好意味著兒童優先、兒童利益最大化,意味著尊重兒童權利應成為家庭教育和學校教育的前提和基本原則。比如說很多學校都建得很漂亮,投入很大為孩子提供好的學習環境,但男廁所里小男生要努力蹺著腳才能勉強夠著小便池,這是對兒童友好的學校嗎?

    要做到兒童友好,就要理解兒童的特點和需要,要知道兒童雖然弱小也是一個權利的主體,是受特殊保護的人,是具有巨大潛力和希望的人,是具有個性差異并需要尊重的人。比如孩子四五歲了還追著喂飯,是對孩子體驗的一種剝奪。生活中這類對兒童不友好的場景太多了。

    毫無疑問,家校協同的理想原則與方向,是堅持立德樹人的方針,努力培育兒童養成良好習慣與健全人格。具體來講,兒童友好的家校協同育人要把握3個要點:

    要全面推進素質教育,落實德智體美勞五育并舉的方針。家校協同絕不能為應試教育推波助瀾,應摒棄“唯知主義”傾向,樹立正確的成才觀念,注重兒童德智體美勞協調發展。

    首先要注重德育,引導兒童形成正確的價值觀念,把教孩子學會做人作為核心目標。要找到學會做人的突破點,如抓住社會實踐和體育運動兩個薄弱環節。

    清華大學附屬小學將家校社協同落在實處,深信“無體育不兒童、體育是看得見的有力量的德育”,堅持每天一節體育課,全校48個班級有96支足球隊,1600多名學生上場比賽過。

    山東省家校協同的一個亮點,就是在家長委員會的積極支持下,許多中小學都恢復了春游秋游等活動。山東省棗莊十五中由家長委員會組織勵志遠足實踐活動課程,確立紅色之旅、文化之旅、自然之旅等10余條經典路線,為學生“遠足鍛煉、生態考察、心理療養”提供有力支持。

    近些年,教育部積極倡導研學旅行活動,最需要的支持力量就是家校協同。武漢市教育局以非凡的勇氣堅持22年開展夏令營活動,讓20多萬中小學生“跟著課本游中國”,在大自然里體驗成長;浙江衢州石梁中學堅持25年組織全校學生長距離遠足拉練,這些實踐都離不開家校協同。

    要積極引導父母注重家庭建設,以生活教育助力兒童發展。家校協同的方向不是讓家庭變為學校,而是讓家庭更像家庭。只有家庭像家庭,父母像父母,孩子才會像孩子。正如陶行知所說,好的生活就是好的教育,壞的生活就是壞的教育。

    家校協同需要引導父母熱愛生活、反思生活、創造生活、引領生活,給予孩子真善美的生活。例如,江西省連續8年進行家校共育的實驗研究,弋陽縣成為深耕細作的典范。弋陽縣圭峰中學自2013年起,連續6年將家長會開到留守學生家長打工較為集中的浙江義烏,讓家長看到孩子們的視頻,再錄制家長的視頻帶回學校播放給學生,深刻促進了家庭建設和親子交流。

    首都師范大學附屬小學,從家庭老物件和老照片入手,開展“學家史、尋家訓、傳家風”家庭課程。北京史家小學在學生倡議下,家校協同開展“放下手機,讓我們真正在一起”的親子活動,密切了親子關系。

    要創造條件建立機制,確保兒童適當參與家校協同育人的討論。兒童參與,是指“兒童自由自愿投入到表達觀點、進行決策或實施行動以實現自身及(或)其他兒童利益并確保其權利的實現和保護”。家校協同要傾聽孩子的聲音,讓孩子充分表達自己的意愿。

    杭州市崇文實驗學校改革優秀家長評選方式,鼓勵每個學生寫父母的優點,由家長委員會和學生代表共同組成評選委員會,聯合評選出班級好父母。在頒獎會上,由學生擔任頒獎嘉賓,宣讀孩子寫的頒獎詞。

    實踐證明,得到兒童理解和支持的家校協同方案,更有可能取得良好效果。父母在家庭生活中也要鼓勵兒童表達自己的意愿,闡述自己的需求。總之,要將兒童參與作為不可或缺的重要環節,讓兒童成為家校協同的建言者、參與者、受益者。

    家校協同中的兒童友好如何落到實處?根本原則就是牢牢確立兒童友好的價值觀,將兒童優先置于不可動搖的地位,家庭、學校、社區乃至全社會,一起提供一個適合兒童生存和發展的環境,革除兒童發展的各種障礙,真正促進兒童的幸福成長。

    (作者系中國青少年研究中心家庭教育首席專家、中國教育學會家庭教育專業委員會常務副理事長)

    《中國教育報》2019年06月13日第9版 

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