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    識別家校危機 掌握化解策略

    發布時間:2019-06-13 作者:羅爽 來源:中國教育報

    家校之間因分歧、矛盾與糾紛產生的危機,產生原因大概有:家長認識有偏差、家長不信任學校、家校溝通不暢、學校教育和管理不當。家校危機一旦處理不當,會給家校關系帶來負面影響,甚至可能導致家校關系破裂。

    家校危機是時代產物

    家校危機之所以會在今天頻繁發生、屢受熱議,很大程度上是緣于時代的變革和社會的變遷。

    這是一個利益分化的時代。改革開放以來,隨著社會主義市場經濟體制的建立,中國已由利益高度一體化的總體性社會轉型為利益多元化的異質性社會。家庭與學校之間的關系開始發生深刻改變,學生和家長越來越以教育消費者的身份主張自己的利益訴求,提出與學校不同的觀點。

    這是一個權利時代。在新時代全面依法治國的背景之下,中國公民的權利意識有了明顯提高和改變,公民遇事找法維權的意識更加強烈。家長不再是沉默的一代,而越來越傾向于以維權的方式來表達對學校的不滿。

    這是教育正面臨的“三獨”時代。獨生子女構成了這一代學生、教師和家長的主體。在獨生子女文化的浸潤之下,孩子受到了前所未有的關注,教師和家長也都個性十足,因此家校之間更容易發生摩擦、爆發矛盾。

    秉持三重基本理念

    家校危機既是挑戰也是機遇。家校危機會給家校關系帶來緊張和危險,但同時也提供了一個疏導不滿情緒、協調利益沖突、緊密團結關系的機會。因此,不能以全盤否定的態度將其看作純粹的家長找碴行為,而應直面挑戰,抓住契機,積極促進家校理解與溝通。

    兒童是處理家校關系圍繞的核心。兒童缺場是當今家校危機處理中存在的普遍現象和最大問題,家校雙方在爭議解決的過程中往往“走得太遠,而忘記了自己當初為什么要出發”,導致家校危機最終演變為意氣之爭,兒童的成長問題卻被忽略和遺忘。學校應時刻牢記立德樹人的根本使命,立足兒童的健康成長,有效解決家校矛盾。

    家庭與學校是命運共同體。雙方擁有促進兒童成長這一共同的價值追求,存在休戚與共、互相依存的緊密關系。這意味著,雙方不僅具有理性的法律關系,還是充滿溫度的情感關系,合作才共贏,一損則俱損。因此,化解家校危機不僅要講“理”,而且要共“情”,應采取多種策略防止家校關系破裂,目的是促進家校合作共育,實現兒童健康成長。

    掌握六種具體策略

    有效預防。可從開展家庭教育指導、加強家校日常溝通、規范和暢通家校溝通、規范學校教育管理等方面入手,幫助家長克服認識偏差、掌握教育方法,重視學校事故法律責任等知識普及,增強家長法治意識,防止發生校鬧等極端行為。平時應重視建立家校信任關系,及時有效地回應和處理家長反映的問題,建立家長對教師的專業認同,保證家長充分了解和參與學校教育與管理。

    有理有據。化解家校危機要運用法治思維和法治方式,依法判斷爭議事件及其涉及的責、權、利。比如遇到因教師管教學生而引發的家校危機時,應首先依據教育法、教師法等法律規定,正確區分懲戒與體罰,依法處理。要完善家校危機化解程序和應急處置預案,調查和處理家校爭議要依照制度化、規范化的程序;要堅守法律底線,不能一味妥協、遷就,尤其是面對學生傷害事故引發的校鬧行為時,一定不得賠錢息事、花錢買平安。

    順暢溝通。良好溝通是化解家校危機的關鍵和保證。調查和處理過程應確保家長全程參與,充分保障家長的知情權和參與權。要站在家長的立場,充分接納、理解家長的意見和情緒,并以適當的方式傳遞接納和理解,充分發揮家長委員會化解家校矛盾的功能,引導家長從有利于孩子身心發展的立場出發,與學校合作共育。

    借助外力。應充分利用行政調解、人民調解等第三方糾紛解決機制。如學生傷害事故引起的家校糾紛,經家校雙方自愿,可書面請求主管教育行政部門指定專門人員進行調解;遇到家長要求更換教師等家校信任危機時,可借助優秀學生、優秀家長等榜樣人物現身說法;遇到較為嚴重的家校危機時,可向教育、公安等政府部門及社區、村委等社會力量尋求幫助。

    掌控輿情。這是新媒體時代家校危機化解的重要環節,輿情處理不當會使家校矛盾升級、學校陷入被動。應高度重視網絡輿論等輿情,積極主動地向社會公眾說明事情真相、回應輿論質疑,對輿論進行正面引導。應指定具有一定法律素養、較高理論水平和較強語言表達能力的人員作為新聞發言人,代表學校接受媒體采訪。

    積極善后。這是決定家校危機能否轉化為家校關系發展契機的關鍵。應主動安撫相關涉事主體的情緒,如因教師懲戒學生引發的危機處理,不僅要安撫涉事學生和家長,還要關心、撫慰因合理行使懲戒權而被誤解的教師,引導他們正確處理和家長的關系,防止過激行動引發新的矛盾。應圍繞引發家校危機的爭議點設計家校合作活動,并總結經驗、反思不足,完善學校相關制度。

    (作者單位:首都師范大學教育學院)

    《中國教育報》2019年06月13日第9版 

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