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    為提升你的文化資本助一臂之力

    ——評清華大學出版社《偉大的思想家》叢書

    發布時間:2019-07-31 作者:方旭東 來源:中國教育新聞網

    剛剛過去的六月,是中國學子的大考之月,先是高考,接著又是中考。無獨有偶,法國的高中畢業會考也是在六月。會考的第一門科目是哲學,這是它的一大傳統特色。眾所周知,中國的哲學教育是放在大學階段,所學內容是馬克思主義哲學原理,簡稱“馬哲”或“馬原”。同樣是學哲學,法國人是把它作為進入大學的門檻,而中國人則認為進了大學才有資格學哲學。關于哲學課程要不要進中學,其實當初法國人曾經有過爭論。一派意見認為,中學生容易被哲學的抽象理念所煽動,因此哲學課程應當全部轉移到大學階段。另一派意見則認為,從古希臘哲學到啟蒙哲學都是法國豐厚的思想遺產,適合所有十五歲以上的高中生學習。最終,后一派意見占了上風。雖然20世紀后半葉以來會考的精英色彩逐漸褪去,但哲學考試在會考中的地位依然穩固,甚至被稱為“眾科目中的王后”,這一方面是因為中學哲學課作為公民教育課的地位不斷被強化,另一方面哲學考試成績在法國某種程度上成為可以衡量的“文化資本”。每年會考前后,公眾人物尤其是政治領袖當年的哲學會考分數都會被媒體挖出來成為談資,法國前總統薩科齊就因為在滿分20分的哲學會考中只得了8分,而被譏笑為“法國有史以來最沒文化的總統”。

    我們可以不同意法國人對中學哲學教育的看法,但哲學有利于培養人的思考或思辨能力這一點應該是有目共睹的。學習哲學的一個有效方法是學習哲學史。哲學史有兩種,一種是直接冠以“哲學史”書名的,如大名鼎鼎的羅素的《西方哲學史》,馮友蘭的《中國哲學史》。另一種則是哲學史本身,也就是構成哲學史的那些偉大的哲學家及其思想。如果是單純為了應付考試,去看第一種哲學史就可以了。事實上,市面上大量的哲學史教科書就是為了滿足這種需要而誕生的,甚至越簡明的哲學史越受歡迎,像北大趙敦華教授的《西方哲學簡史》就是考研的“寶書”。實際上,這本書是仿照馮友蘭《中國哲學簡史》而寫的。《中國哲學簡史》最初是馮先生1948年在美國賓夕法尼亞大學大學授課的講義,經卜德(Derk Bodde)教授整理后,以A Short History of Chinese Philosophy之名出版,風靡英語世界數十年,至今仍是英語世界中國哲學的入門讀物。馮先生曾自謙這本書是“小史”。然而,正如馮先生所說:“著小史者,意在通俗,不易展其學,而其識其才,較之學術巨著尤為需要。”

    如果是哲學的愛好者,不為應付考試,主要是為自己的興趣而念哲學,那么,第二種哲學史就是更合適的選擇。學術界有一種看法比較流行,就是強調讀“原著”或“元典”。作為在大學有多年教齡的哲學老師,筆者對此不敢茍同。原著固然重要,但是,讓初學者直接就去“啃”原著,效果并不好。原因很簡單,初學者還沒有能力去讀原著,無論這個原著是用古代漢語寫的還是用外語寫的。按筆者的經驗,初學者在讀原著之前,先找一本相關的“導讀”性的書去看,往往會起到事半功倍的效果。比如,在讀康德的《純粹理性批判》之前,先去讀一本介紹康德其人其學的小冊子,絕對是“磨刀不誤砍柴工”的做法。

    那么問題來了,這樣的小冊子到哪里去找呢?國內圖書市場魚龍混雜,質量參差不齊。“華茲華斯哲學家叢書”(Wadsworth Philosophers)是筆者的推薦。“華茲華斯”是英語世界高等教育教科書的著名品牌,“哲學家叢書”是其推出的“人文社會科學類-哲學系列”之一種,現已出版88冊。這套叢書的優點是在學術性與普及型的平衡方面達到了相對完美的程度。若問這一點是如何做到的?答案就在于它對作者的遴選。該叢書的每一位作者都是研究其所論述的哲學家的真正專家,之前都出版過專業性很強的學術著作與論文。以下我們以《維特根斯坦》這一冊為例,對此做一個說明。

    維特根斯坦也許是20世紀最廣為人知的哲學家,然而,維特根斯坦的哲學并不好懂,他生前就曾為自己的哲學老是受到誤解而憂心忡忡。Jaakko Hintikka所撰寫的這本《維特根斯坦》,不敢說是對維氏哲學最好的詮釋,但可以保證,那種常見的外行式的介紹在這里不會出現。這是因為,作者Hintikka(1929-2015)是真正的專家。他是芬蘭人,在赫爾辛基取得哲學博士學位,1956-1959年在哈佛進修,隨后獲得赫爾辛基大學教職,1990年加盟波士頓大學直到退休。Hintikka是世界知名的語言哲學家、邏輯學家,享有學術盛譽,包括榮膺1964年度牛津洛克講座、1985年斯坦福康德講座主講之職。1996到2003年間,Hintikka五卷本文集出版。2006年,作為“在世哲學家文庫”的一種,The Philosophy of Jaakko Hintikka隆重問世。Hintikka在哲學上的主要貢獻是“游戲論的語義學”(Game-theoretical semantics),這一理論是對維特根斯坦著名的“語言游戲”理論的直接回應。在維特根斯坦研究方面,他師承20世紀最杰出的維特根斯坦研究專家G.H.馮-萊特(Von Wright)。在寫《維特根斯坦》這本小冊子之前,Hintikka已出版了兩本維特根斯坦研究的專著,分別是:《維特根斯坦研究》(Investigating Wittgenstein, Oxford: Blackwell, 1986)、《維特根斯坦:二分之一真理與一又二分之一真理》(Ludwig Wittgenstein: Half Truths and One and a Half Truths, Selected Papers, vol.1, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academia, 1996)。

    Hintikka分九個專題介紹了維特根斯坦其人其學,翻成中文后不到10萬字,是名副其實的小冊子,所用語言則是分析哲學一貫的風格:清晰、平實,讓人讀起來毫不費力。書末還列了詳細的文獻目錄,首先是維氏本人的著述(包括已刊與未刊稿),Hintikka還特別標明哪些是他人記錄的,以提醒讀者注意辨別。其次是維氏傳記。再次是二手文獻,在這部分,Hintikka毫不掩飾自己對這些研究文獻價值的評判。

    總之,透過Hintikka這本小冊子,你可以在最短的時間內進入維特根斯坦的思想世界。

    清華大學出版社引進翻譯了包括《維特根斯坦》在內的這套叢書的44種,對中國的哲學愛好者來說,無疑是一大福音。

    就清華大學本身而言,此舉還有特殊的意味。在民國時期,清華的文科與北大并駕齊驅、各有擅場,在哲學上還出現了“清華學派”,前面提到的馮友蘭先生就是其中的主力。由于歷史原因,清華文科中斷了很長時間。今天,清華文科已逐漸恢復,有些學科已上升為全國的翹楚。相信本叢書的出版,必將在廣大讀者心目中建立起清華與哲學的聯結,馮先生等清華前輩地下有知,亦當含笑九泉吧。(作者為華東師范大學哲學系教授、博士生導師)

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