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    首頁>檢索頁>當前

    說說來華留學教育支出這些事

    發布時間:2019-07-30 作者:封寒冰 來源:上觀新聞

    教育部2018年決算報告新近出爐,其中用于來華留學教育方面的支出為33.83億元,同期小學教育支出6.45億元,高中教育支出22.86億元,因山東大學“學伴制度”事件,有關來華留學支出也受到普遍關注。為何決算報告中留學教育方面的支出高于小學與高中教育支出?各個大學用于外國學生來華留學教育的支出到底怎么花的?

    來華留學教育經費VS義務教育投入

    過去一年我們用于來華留學教育的支出為33.83億元,占教育部總支出的1.08%,而同期小學教育支出才6.45億元。

    怎么看這兩個數據的差異?

    憑此判斷中國給留學生的經費已經超過基礎教育經費,是缺乏常識的。目前中國有1.03億在校小學生,如果6.45億元是全部花的錢,平攤到每位義務教育階段的小朋友才6.26元,顯然是不可能的。實際上,決算中提及的中小學教育經費僅僅是用于教育部直屬高等學校28所附屬中小學校的經費決算數,并不包括中央財政轉移地方用于各地義務教育、普通高中教育的教育專項。

    中國在國內教育的總投入是多少呢?根據中國教育部前不久發布的統計快報,2018年全國教育經費總投入為46135億元,在各級教育經費投入中,義務教育投入最多,達20858億元。

    33億元和2萬億孰多孰少,一目了然。

    外國人來華留學教育經費VS本國國民公費出國留學經費

    教育部國際合作與交流司負責人在本月20日回答記者提問時介紹,來華留學教育經費用于資助根據中國政府與有關國家(地區)政府簽訂的教育交流協議到中國高校學習或開展科研的非中國籍公民,直接撥付給高校,大部分由高校統籌用于來華留學生培養、管理等支出,僅生活費發放給獎學金生本人。

    中國政府獎學金資助內容和標準

    640.webp.jpg

    (注:一類包括:哲學、經濟學、法學、教育學、文學<除文藝類外>、歷史學、管理學;二類包括:理學、工學、農學;三類包括:文學<文藝類>、醫學。)

    “中國政府獎學金”是這筆經費的主要去向,它又分為全額獎學金和部分獎學金,前者包括了一名在華留學生在規定資助期限內的學費、住宿費、生活費和醫療保險費。按照教育部公布的《2018來華留學統計》顯示,這筆獎學金的覆蓋范圍為63,041人,占來華生總數的12.81%。也就是說均攤到每名受資助的在華留學生身上的費用大約為5.29萬元,其余87.19%的留學生則不在這筆經費的資助范圍內。

    相較之下,2018年我國出國留學教育經費為49.26億元(含通過外交部支出10.38億元),主要用于資助6.97萬名公派出國留學人員,人均經費為7.07萬元,遠高于來華留學生人均經費。

    外國人來華留學人員組成

    非洲學生VS發達國家

    那么享受資助的留學生是怎樣一個群體呢?我們可以來看一組教育部公布的數據,2018年共有來自196個國家和地區的492,185名各類外國留學人員在全國31個省(區、市)的1004所高等院校學習。其中亞洲學生最多,占59.95%,歐美學生總共占22.22%,非洲學生占16.57%。并且在來華留學生人數最多的前15國列表中,來自韓國、日本、美國、法國等發達國家的留學生人數占到了19.6%。

    6401.webp.jpg

    數據來源:教育部2018年來華留學統計

    56所高校來華留學教育支出比較

    6402.webp.jpg

    數據來源:56所高校2019年部門預算

    為了弄清楚33.83億元到高校后如何分配,本文分析了56所高校2019年部門預算。發現不同高校在該類經費數額方面相差懸殊。一般來說是否是雙一流高校直接影響了高校能從教育部財政支出中獲得的撥款。不同高校獲得的財政撥款相差懸殊,相對應用于來華留學教育的預算也相差較大。

    來華留學教育經費預算最多的三所高校分別是華中科技大學(8648.69萬元)、浙江大學(7913.87萬元)和上海交通大學(6920.04萬元),而三所較少的高校分別是中國礦業大學(734.98萬元)、中國美術學院(313.96萬元)和中央戲劇學院(237.39萬元),華中科技大學和中央戲劇學院在來華留學教育經費上相差近36倍。

    6403.webp.jpg

    數據來源:56所高校2019年預算

    我們又比較了56所高校2019年用于來華留學生教育的經費在總支出預算中的占比,占比排名前5的高校有4所為語言類、師范類高校。北京語言大學2019年支出總預算為11.74億元,來華留學教育支出則達到了5550萬元,以4.73%的比重領先其余高校。而清華大學用于來華留學教育支出為6684.99萬元,比北京語言大學高出1000多萬元,但因為年度預算支出達到243.46億元,該款項占比僅0.27%,排在了高校來華留學教育經費占比榜單的倒數第二位。

    山東大學2019來華留學教育經費預算為5950.72萬元,排在來華留學教育支出經費榜單第6位;占到該校當年總支出的0.75%,在來華留學教育經費占比榜單中排在第16位。

    來華留學教育經費VS科研經費

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    科學技術支出和來華留學教育支出的比較,也是公眾較為關注的話題,有文章表示,山東大學的來華留學教育經費是5958萬元,超過其科研經費5606萬元。實際情況是,高校間花錢方式相差甚遠。上圖中囊括了56所高校的科學技術支出和來華留學教育支出基本情況,標黃的高校有29所,其科學技術支出超過了來華留學教育支出,主要集中在總支出排行榜的前半部分。這類高校大致為以理工科見長的高校,如西安交通大學、華中農業大學、武漢理工大學等,以及國內頭部高校如清華大學、北京大學、浙江大學、復旦大學等。不標黃的高校為來華留學教育支出超出科學技術支出,是27所,多為師范類、語言類和財經類高校,其中有9所高校甚至沒有科學技術支出這一預算。但這并不能就冠以那27所高校“不重視科研”、“本末倒置”的帽子,只能說是不同定位高校的發展方向不同,讓語言類高校花大價錢去做科研顯然也違背了建校初衷,而且文科類專業的科研經費往往低于理工類專業。

    同時我們也了解到,根據部門預算編制口徑,部門預算中的“來華留學教育支出”和“科學技術支出”,僅反映財政撥款安排的相關支出,并未反映出高校在此類支出上的全貌。以山東大學為例,山東大學科學技術支出5606萬元,僅包括中央財政撥款安排的重點實驗室等相關支出,而山東大學通過競爭獲得的其他各類科研經費約超過10億元。因此,部門預算和決算中的“來華留學教育經費”和“科研經費”的數字不具可比性,也說明不了什么問題。

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