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    華陰老腔:來自黃土高原的吶喊

    發布時間:2018-12-07 作者:劉雨佳 來源:中國教育新聞網-中國民族教育雜志

    1.jpg

    (老腔藝人張喜民(左三)和他的喜民班。 張嘉興 供圖)

    “黃河到華山拐了個彎,彎出個村莊叫雙泉;雙泉最愛唱老腔,一嗓子吼了幾千年。”雙泉,顧名思義就是兩眼泉水。都說水就像是萬物的血脈,這個先天就依山傍水的寶地卻偏偏沒有培育出溫柔如流水的文化,而是生長出了滄桑激昂的老腔文化。

    老腔原為雙泉村張家的家傳戲,從漢代到今屢經演變,出了不少藝人:張懷英、張玉印、張全生,再到張喜民。老腔的表演形式也隨著時代的發展而發生了相應的變化,從最初的搭戲臺以皮影為主的表演到現在的幕前演唱。當下,越來越多的人開始了解老腔,老腔也走出了雙泉、陜西,甚至走出了國門。

    日前,我們清華大學新聞與傳播學院11名同學組成了“老腔”調研支隊,來到華陰老腔的發源地——陜西省渭南市華陰市衛峪鄉雙泉村,進行為期10天的調研,親身感受老腔的獨特魅力,了解老腔藝人的生活,挖掘舞臺上蒼涼悲壯的老腔表演背后的故事。

    走近:老腔的傳承現狀

    到達雙泉村第一天,我們就馬不停蹄地采訪了華陰老腔第十代傳人張喜民和他的孫子——第十一代傳人張猛。

    張喜民家不大的客廳里,掛滿了他曾參與的老腔表演海報,以及他和許多藝人的合照。左邊的墻上,掛著數不清的演出證和獎牌。合照中的張喜民永遠是一副樂呵呵的模樣,遇到比較親近的人還會互相搭著肩膀。

    健談的張喜民向我們講述了老腔的起源、傳承與發展,老腔從默默無聞到走紅國內外的幕后故事,以及目前老腔傳承得到的幫助和遭遇的困境。我們還第一次看到了傳承至今的老腔劇本。

    “我個人不求什么其他東西,只想著怎么樣才能把這個傳統傳承下去。老腔丟失了,是國家的損失,也是民族的損失。”談到老腔的傳承問題時,張喜民說,“現在國家的政策好,非常重視傳統文化的傳承與保護。每年,老腔項目與老腔傳承人都能享受到國家和地方政府的補貼。為了更好地傳承民族傳統文化,這幾年村里還建設了華陰老腔傳承保護基地,學生們可以免費來拜師學藝。”

    在我們的邀請下,張喜民召集了喜民班的大部分人馬,在自家院子里舉行了一場小型老腔表演。嘶吼聲、跺地聲、砸凳聲、敲梆聲混合,在雨后的清新空氣中交織、發酵,釀造出了黃土高原上富有獨特韻味的原生態表演。我們第一次現場感受到了老腔獨特的魅力。幾曲終罷,空氣凝澀靜止。幾秒后,我們才回過神來鼓掌,大家都被老人們那股精神勁強烈地震撼到了!

    之后的幾天里,我們每天在早期的分工準備后,就開始分成幾個小組,挨家挨戶尋訪村子里的老腔藝人,成功采訪到了張新民、張軍民、張全四等老腔藝人。遍訪雙泉村之后,我們又走出了村子,來到了華陰市老腔保護中心,采訪了將老腔從幕后搬到臺前的導演黨安華。

    穿著布鞋的黨安華,在辦公室里向我們講他初次與老腔相遇的情景、發展老腔的過程,以及他與老腔藝人們合作的經歷。提到第一次偶然觀賞老腔表演的情景,黨安華記憶猶新。他說:“我覺得這是表演的最高境界。表演者們完全處于自然人的狀態,而不是社會人的狀態。”

    在黨安華的極力推薦下,我們又前往南寨村,找到了老腔的另一名國家級非物質文化遺產傳承人——王振中。王振中老先生今年八十有余,聽力和視力漸漸退化,但聊起老腔,仍然熱血沸騰,嗓門洪亮。黨安華說:“王老先生能唱出那種無人可及的蒼涼悲壯感!有次他唱完,我的眼淚刷地就下來了。”雖然現在已經無法再唱出那樣蒼勁的腔調,但提起與老腔的故事、對老腔如今發展的看法和對老腔繼續發展的建議,王老先生依然思維清晰,侃侃而談。采訪結束后,王老先生彈撥月琴,為我們清唱一曲:“風花雪月平凡事,笑看奇聞說炎涼,悲歡離合觀世相,百態人生話滄桑……”

    2.jpg

    (年過八旬的老腔藝人王振中。張嘉興 供圖)

    變革:老腔的前世今生

    傳說,西漢時期,三河口的漕運船工為了統一大家的動作,一邊喊著船工號子,一邊用木塊敲擊船幫。這,就是老腔的前身。如今的老腔則脫胎于風靡一時的“老腔皮影戲”。作為一支稀有曲種,華陰老腔的發展之路可謂一波三折。

    中國非物質文化遺產專家靳之林稱老腔為“中國戲曲的活化石”,而雙泉村的張氏家族是傳承老腔的世家。自 1962 年起,張喜民便開始跟隨父親、伯父學習老腔。那時,沒有手寫的樂譜,只能靠表演者口口相傳。到上世紀初,老腔才正式接收外來學習者。“文革”時期,老腔受到前所未有的沖擊,老戲遭到禁止,整個華陰只剩下七個班社。改革開放以后,老腔的傳承仍然面臨青黃不接的局面。

    最初,老腔只是皮影戲的幕后表演伴奏,觀眾看到的只是幕前的光影。2001年,現任老腔文化保護中心主任黨安華對老腔進行了革新,再次將其推上時代舞臺。在觀看了雙泉村老腔表演深受震撼之后,黨安華做出了一個大膽的決定——用老腔與表演結合的戲劇,代替將人物隱于幕后的皮影戲,從而形成了現在生活氣息濃郁的原生態演出形式。老腔藝人不會過分裝扮,舞臺道具也較為樸素,但其寬厚的嗓音極具震撼力,配合自然真實的表演動作,往往能打動觀眾,使人印象深刻。

    2006年,話劇《白鹿原》到陜西挑選富有當地風情的劇種,華陰老腔從眾多劇種中脫穎而出,之后又在北京的演出中以撼人心魄的藝術魅力征服了觀眾,被譽為“黃土地上的搖滾”。隨著《白鹿原》在北京人藝登臺,老腔得到全國觀眾的認可,獲得了更多外出表演的機會,并且榮獲全國第十四屆“群星獎”。很多人也由此燃起了學習老腔的興趣。

    老腔無疑是幸運的,宣傳和創新讓這個地方性傳統文化在全國享有盛名,甚至走出國門,在美國、法國、德國、澳大利亞和新加坡等地演出,包括世界頂尖學府——哈佛大學。老腔表演者們激動地說:“外國人也不知道咱唱的是個啥,聽不懂中國話,但被咱的氣勢感染了,演出后掌聲就不停。自豪得很!”

    近年來,老腔作為民族傳統文化寶庫中的瑰寶之一,結合時代潮流,大膽創新。創新后的老腔,唱詞、唱腔和唱調等有了更大的感染力,還嘗試和話劇、搖滾樂等結合,成為文化傳承與創新結合的典范。

    現已72歲高齡的張喜民老師依然堅持早起練嗓,研讀劇本。據張喜民回憶,小時候他每天都要去村后面的山坡吊嗓子,因為老腔的發音要求規范,必須經常練習才能把握好每個人物不同的唱腔與表情。最初學旦角和道白時,他必須反復不斷地練習嘗試、消化打磨。幾十年的光陰如白駒過隙,他也練得一身“好功夫”。

    未來:老腔將走向何方

    從過去的老戲到新戲,再到現在與流行音樂和搖滾結合,張喜民經歷過老腔變革的幾個階段。作為老腔音樂的核心傳承人,張喜民依然活躍于舞臺之上,傳播老腔文化的魅力。從地方戲到上春晚,再到美國、德國等國家進行演出。張喜民一次次傾盡全力的表演,只為老腔能夠贏得觀眾和外界更多的掌聲和關注。

    對于華陰老腔的現狀,張喜民總體上來說還算滿意,唯一讓他擔心的就是學習老腔的年輕人過少。提到這一問題時,張喜民頗有些恨鐵不成鋼的憤懣:“還是有一些年輕人想學老腔的,但不知道哪來的腐舊思想,拉不下面子來學習,認為學習老腔唱戲是不入流的行當。”為了解決這一問題,老一輩的老腔藝人與華陰縣政府通力合作,曾舉辦過兩次培訓班,共招收 77 名學員,免學費,并在學成通過考核后頒發獎學金。各位老腔藝人也是傾力傳授,力求將老腔的技巧與精神傳遞下去。

    一次,和我們聊完之后,張喜民順手將手里的月琴遞給在臺側敲鑼的孫子張猛,笑著對大家說:“下面就由張猛來給大家唱一曲。”

    這個20歲出頭的年輕人略帶羞澀地接過了爺爺手中的月琴,坐在了主唱的位置上。一老一少,一前一后,各自撫著琴坐在板凳上,合唱一曲。

    張猛所代表的年輕老腔學習者身上,肩負著老腔的未來。在當地,除了“傳統文化進校園”的推廣模式之外,政府有老腔保護中心和老腔學習基地來傳承發揚老腔傳統文化,老腔滲透在這個村子的方方面面。上到三四十歲的大叔,下至剛上一二年級的孩子,都開始學習老腔。

    在保護與傳承老腔文化方面,華陰市政府可謂是不遺余力。2007年,華陰市華陰老腔藝術保護發展中心正式設立,其主要任務是挖掘、整理、保護和發展華陰老腔,并組織民間老腔藝人以多種表演形式在全世界范圍內進行文化交流。保護中心的設立對老腔的發展起到了重大的作用,同時也為民間老腔藝人提供了穩定的工作。已經閑置的雙泉村小學被改建成了華陰老腔傳承基地,內設教學廳、傳承廳和展示廳,為老腔藝人交流排練以及教學傳承提供了穩定的場所。

    懷揣著將老腔長久傳遞下去的夢想,張喜民帶領班子走出村子,最終成功地將老腔文化呈現給了更多的人。村民提起老腔的時候,語氣中都帶著驕傲和自豪。華陰老腔給村子帶來的改變,不僅僅是物質上的富裕,更有一股文化自信深深地扎進華陰人民的心中。

    我們“老腔”調研支隊在華陰的調研中,一點點深入了解著老腔的魅力以及演繹老腔藝者的精彩故事,感受著老腔藝術者的淳樸,體會著他們的生活,從而對老腔何以如此具有生命力、感染力和原始的質樸感有了更深更好的理解,也在感受的過程中對老腔的發展和傳承有了更多的關切。

    “發端之悠遠,歷史的吟誦,蘊藏于關中大地深層的詩質。”已故著名作家陳忠實這樣評論華陰老腔。華陰老腔是黃土高原上勞動人民征服自然的智慧結晶,它的傳承與發展道阻且長,卻又充滿希望。希望老腔文化和老一輩人的老腔精神像唱腔里的吶喊一樣,余音繞梁、經久不息!

    (本文系清華大學新聞與傳播學院“老腔”調研支隊所作,劉雨佳執筆)

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